Oviparous squamates are more vulnerable to climate warming than viviparous species in sympatric zones
AbstractWhether oviparous or viviparous species are more vulnerable to climate warming is a long-standing puzzle. In this study, we developed a novel life history model to quantify the impact of climate change on maternal energy budget and offspring survival of squamate species with either parity mode. We demonstrate that climate warming will increase energy intake by adults without affecting reproductive success and increase offspring survival in viviparous species. In contrast, climate warming will induce a significantly increased reproductive output in oviparous species, which exceeds the energy intake by adults. In particular, in most subtropical regions, warming may cause oviparous females to produce more offspring with reduced survival, leading to low reproductive efficiency. These results suggest that oviparous squamates may be more vulnerable to climate warming than viviparous species in the broad sympatric zone of these species.