Production of ecofriendly bio-lubricant samples from palm kernel oil
using different chemical modification approaches
This work focused on the chemical synthesis and characterization of palm
kernel oil (PKO) for bio-lubricant production using transesterification
of palm kernel methyl ester (PKME) with trimethylolpropane (TMP) and
epoxidation-esterification methods. The PKO was extracted using solvent
extraction method. The physicochemical characteristics of the PKO and
produced bio-lubricant samples were determined using standard methods.
Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and Gas Chromatographic
analyses, were respectively, used to determine the predominant
functional groups and fatty acids of PKO and the produced bio-lubricant
samples. At 55 °C, 150 min and 0.5 mm particle size, kernel oil yield
was 49.82 % (by weight). The viscosities at 40 °C, 100 °C, viscosity
index, pour and flash points of the bio-lubricants produced by
transesterification of TMP (PKBLT) and epoxidation-esterification
(PKBLE) methods, were [42.53 cSt, 10.65 cSt, 139, - 11 °C, 235 °C]
and [44.69 cSt, 11.42 cSt, 132, - 12 °C, 240 °C], respectively.
Time, mole ratio and temperature effects were the main factors that
significantly influenced the transesterification and epoxidation
processes. The obtained physicochemical properties of PKBLE and PKBLT
samples showed conformity with ISO VG 32 standard, hence, their possible
application as bio-lubricant basestock.