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Prevalence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment among older Albanian patients detected by different screening tools
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  • Klejda Harasani (Hudhra),
  • Delina Xhafaj,
  • Adrisa Lekaj,
  • Livia Veshi,
  • Maria del Carmen Olvera-Porcel
Klejda Harasani (Hudhra)
University of Medicine of Tirana
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Delina Xhafaj
University of Medicine of Tirana
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Adrisa Lekaj
University of Medicine of Tirana
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Livia Veshi
University of Medicine of Tirana
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Maria del Carmen Olvera-Porcel
Fundación Pública Andaluza para la investigación Biosanitaria Andalucía Oriental
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Abstract

Rationale, aims and objectives: Recent studies have identified significant gaps in dementia´s epidemiology, especially regarding low- and middle-income countries. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia by applying different tests among older Albanian patients and to find correlates with socio-demographic and medical factors. Method: Study population consisted of older people (60 years or more) who visited primary healthcare centers in two Albanian cities (Shkoder and Tirana). The MoCA (Montreal Cognitive Assessment), MoCA B (Basic) and the mini-cog were translated and applied by two trained pharmacists. A predictive multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. Degree of agreement between the MoCA and mini-cog tools was assessed using Kappa statistic. Results: A total of 206 participants with a mean age of 68,8 years old (SD 5.65), almost equally distributed among the two cities, were included in our study. A high prevalence of dementia and MCI was detected with MoCA, respectively 19,42 % and 93,20 %. The latter was 20,39 % with mini-cog. Multivariate regression analysis showed that men had an elevated risk for MCI (OR 5,31; 95% CI 1,40 – 20,15), as well as patients from Shkoder (OR 14,48; 95% CI 1,11 – 4,53), when MoCA detected MCI. According to mini-cog, more than 7 years of education acted as a protective factor for MCI (OR 0,12; 95% CI, 0,05 – 0,33), whereas having 1 to 6 years of education was a risk factor. For each year increase of age the risk of MCI was 1,16 times higher. The degree of agreement between the two tools was poor with Kappa 2.38 (SD 1,87). Conclusion: The results of these tests may help in selecting individuals for more specialised examination, in order to facilitate early diagnosis of dementia and MCI among Albanian older patients.