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The Determination of the Effect of Some Parameters to Formation of 2-MCPD, 3-MCPD and GE in Frying Process with Sunflower Oil by Using Central Composite Design
  • Oktay Kalkan,
  • Mustafa Topkafa,
  • Huseyin Kara
Oktay Kalkan
Selçuk University
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Mustafa Topkafa
Selcuk University
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Huseyin Kara
Selcuk University
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Abstract

The formation of 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD), 2-monochloropropanediol (2-MCPD) and glycidyl esters (GE) in sunflower oil frying processes were evaluated with the aid of central composite design (CCD) methodology. The parameters of temperature, duration and salinity which caused formation of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and GE species during frying operations were selected as variable parameters in central composite design. The amount of formations in these conditions was determined by using the officially published AOCS method with GC-MS in SIM mode. The highest 3-MCPD (0.30 mg/kg), 2-MCPD (0.09 mg/kg) and GE (0.72 mg/kg) formations were observed in the hardest conditions with 40 min., 180 °C and 300 mg NaCl/ 100mL for oil. The obtained results showed that he minimum 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and GE formations were found to be the softest conditions. The results were compared with previous studies and were observed that MCPD species formed in low amounts in the frying process with sunflower oil than other fruit oils such as palm oil. The desirability function and the 3D plots suggested that optimum parameters were 40 min, 170°C and 100 mg/100 mL for minimum MCPD and GE formations in frying process.