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Effect of omega 3 fatty acids intake during pregnancy on maternal health and birth outcomes: A Meta-Analysis and meta-analysis
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  • Mona Abdelrahman,
  • Hasnaa Osama,
  • Haitham Saeed,
  • Yasmin Madney,
  • Hadeer Harb,
  • Mohamed Abdelrahim
Mona Abdelrahman
Beni Suef University
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Hasnaa Osama
Beni Suef University
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Haitham Saeed
Beni Suef University
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Yasmin Madney
Beni Suef University
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Hadeer Harb
Beni Suef University
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Mohamed Abdelrahim
Beni Suef University
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Abstract

Background: It is assumed that the intake of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) during pregnancy is vital to maternal health and fetal growth. Objective: The objective was to examine the effect of supplementation with DHA, and/or EPA, and/or ALA throughout pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes and birth growth measures. Design: A systemic research was performed in MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, ClinicalTrials.gov, PROSPERO, and the Cochrane Library comparing omega 3 supplementations with control groups, from 1990 to 2020. Results: Data were extracted into a standardized table and pooled analyses were directed using Revman software. Twenty-eight randomized controlled trials were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acid in 13 comparisons (11,392 women) demonstrated that n-3 fatty acids played a protective role against the risk of preeclampsia (RR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.65–0.92; p=0.004; I2=0%). The analysis of the 16 comparisons (3862 women) revealed that n-3 fatty acids for pregnant women were associated with a significantly greater length of pregnancy (RR= -0.61, 95% CI: -1.14– -0.07, p=0.09; I2=0%). The analysis of the 5 comparisons (4343 women) was accompanied by a significant decrease in early pre-term birth (RR=0.72, 95% CI: 0.55–0.94, p=0.01; I2=0%). Finally, the analysis of the 10 comparisons (6073 infants) had a significant increase in birth weight measurements (RR=34.04, 95% CI: 10.70–57.37, p=0.004; I2=26%). Conclusions: The omega 3 supplements are an effective approach to prevent the incidence of preeclampsia, increase gestational duration, increase newborn weight, and decrease the risk of early preterm birth during pregnancy.