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COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES OF SARS-CoV AND SARS-CoV-2
  • Surajo Adamu,
  • Vasantha Neela
Surajo Adamu
Universiti Putra Malaysia
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Vasantha Neela
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Abstract

Diagnostic tests for identification of people infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses is crucial in the control and prevention of SARS-CoVs. Towards the ending of the year 2019, a novel coronavirus that resembles SARS-CoV called COVID-19 that causes respiratory disease appeared in China and later spread subsequently through more than 215 countries including Australia, Japan, Italy, Germany, South Africa, United Kingdom and the Unites States and has continue to spread worldwide. The genome of SARS-CoV is 29,727 nucleotides in length, and the genome organization is similar to that of other COVID-19. Generally, viral infection have been diagnosed in the laboratory through detection of viral antigens, nucleic acid, specific antibodies and by isolation and electron microscopy. Coronaviruses were detected usually from respiratory samples and blood by ELISA, Immunoflourescence test, Immunoblot and polymerase chain reaction. For epidemiological purposes the virus have to be cultured prior to other techniques in order to obtain good results. However, cultural technique is not recommended for COVID-19. The highest yield for the detection of SARS-CoVs results from real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Sensitivity and specificity of IgG-IgM rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kits were acceptable as they are speedy, easy to use and cheap procedures which contribute to its application in mass testing. However, it cannot be employed instead of RT-PCR to detect COVID-19, but can be optional and complementary test. Development of rRT-PCR/IgG-IgM combined test kit could be helpful to ease diagnosis and the disease management, therefore more efforts are needed to investigate alternative diagnostics for coronaviruses.