Bronchiectasis (BE) is defined as a permanent, irreversible dilation of
the bronchial tree. In the pediatric population, this disease process is
most commonly associated with patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF).
However, bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis is increasingly
noted as a cause of chronic respiratory related morbidity worldwide.
Chronic inflammation and recurrent infection result in cellular cascades
that lead to irreversible structural changes of the airways. When these
architectural changes occur, they confer extensive risks to morbidity
usually due to continued infections. In the adult population,
bronchiectasis has been associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease, which is mainly caused by cigarette smoking. In this report,
the authors reviewed various cases of bronchiectasis in the pediatric
population where the only inciting factor was electronic cigarette use.