State-of-the-Art Clinical Results of Growth Hormone
Secretagogues, SARM and Antagonists
Introduction: The term growth hormone secretagogues (GHS) encompasses compounds that were developed to increase growth release of growth hormone (GH). GHSs include growth hormone receptor secretagogue agonists (GHS-R), whose natural ligand is ghrelin, and growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) agonists, to which GHRH binds as a native ligand. In the context of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARM), the presence of a Toll-IL-1 receptor domain (TIR) predicts a role for SARMs in innate immunity. SARMs are an emerging class of therapies aimed at cachexia, sarcopenia and hypogonadism or treatment of stress urinary incontinence, osteoporosis, breast cancer and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Objective: To present the state-of-the-art scientific evidence in humans on the use of growth hormone secretagogues, SARM and antagonists. Methods: Experimental and clinical studies were included (case reports, retrospective, prospective, randomized studies and systematic review) with qualitative and/or quantitative analysis. For further specifications, the description “Clinical Trail” for refinement was added during the research, following the rules of the systematic review-PRISMA. Of 384 articles, a total of 80 articles were evaluated in full and 58 were included and discussed in this study. Results and conclusion: Several clinical trials have been conducted and completed to assess the safety and efficacy of GHS for the diagnosis and / or treatment of GH deficiency. Over the past two decades, scientists' efforts have focused on the discovery and biological characterization of new tissue-specific SARM to promote the beneficial effects of androgens with greatly reduced undesirable side effects. In this regard, numerous studies with SARM of different structures have been reported. Despite evidenced clinical and preclinical studies, no SARM has yet received full clinical approval.
Keywords: Growth hormone secretagogues. Peptides. SARM. Antagonists. Clinical Studies.