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Dynamicity of exosomes as immuno-oncological biomarkers in secondary metastasis and cancer therapy
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  • Sraddhya Roy,
  • Ananya Das,
  • Nushrat Jahan,
  • Nabanita Chatterjee
Sraddhya Roy
Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute
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Ananya Das
Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute
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Nushrat Jahan
Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute
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Nabanita Chatterjee
Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute
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Abstract

Being a tiny component, all the intra-cellular orchestra starting from exosome generation till its escape from the immune cells, is connected with biogenic dynamicity of molecular signaling in the cells. The biogenesis of exosomes follows the endocytic pathway thereby releases the intraluminal vesicles in the extracellular space. Exosomes play critical role in oncogenic signaling in the primary tumor microenvironment as well as distant sites to make a pre-metastatic niche (PMN) for the tumor cells to cause future metastasis. Moreover, tumor derived exosomes (TDEs) play an important role in invasion-metastasis cascade by initiating paracrine and autocrine signals in the tumor milieu thus activating the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the neoplastic epithelial cells. The exosomes taken up by the distally situated organ tissues facilitates the formation of pre metastatic niche allowing the tumor cells to arrive, extravasate and eventually colonize in the new microenvironment and thereby promoting distant metastasis (The Seed and Soil Theory). Importantly, secondary metastasis is also achieved by altering the extracellular matrix by the TDEs as well as by escaping the immune surveillance, which in turn modulate the host immunity and gradually results in the disease progression. Exosomes exhibiting the properties like high target specificity combined with low immunogenicity and biocompatibility aids the exosomes to sow its seed in the new field of therapies and thus all the remarkable properties make it a focus of interest in the research field.