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Epidemiology, molecular characterization and risk factors of Carnivore protoparvovirus-1 infection and disease in the wild felid Leopardus guigna in Chile
  • +11
  • Irene Sacristán,
  • F. Esperon,
  • Ruben Pérez,
  • Francisca Acuña,
  • Emilio Aguilar,
  • Sebastian Garcia,
  • María José López,
  • Elena Neves,
  • Javier Cabello,
  • Ezequiel Hidalgo-Hermoso,
  • Terio KA,
  • Javier Millan,
  • Elie Poulin,
  • Constanza Napolitano
Irene Sacristán
Universidad Andres Bello
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F. Esperon
CISA-INIA
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Ruben Pérez
Facultad de Ciencias
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Francisca Acuña
Universidad de Chile Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias y Pecuarias
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Emilio Aguilar
Universidad de Chile Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias y Pecuarias
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Sebastian Garcia
Universidad de Chile Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias y Pecuarias
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María José López
Universidad de Chile Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias y Pecuarias
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Elena Neves
INIA-CISA
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Javier Cabello
facultad de medicina veterinaria universidad san sebastian
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Ezequiel Hidalgo-Hermoso
Departamento de Conservación e Investigación, Parque Zoológico Buin Zoo
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Terio KA
University of Illinois
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Javier Millan
Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón-IA2 Universidad de Zaragoza-CITA
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Elie Poulin
Universidad de Chile Facultad de Ciencias
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Constanza Napolitano
Universidad de Los Lagos
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Abstract

Landscape anthropization has been identified as one of the main drivers of pathogen emergence worldwide, facilitating pathogen spillover between domestic species and wildlife. The present study investigated Carnivore protoparvovirus-1 (CPPV) infection using molecular methods in 98 free-ranging wild guignas (Leopardus guigna) and 262 co-occurring owned, free-roaming rural domestic cats. We also assessed landscape anthropization variables as potential drivers of infection. CPPV DNA was detected in guignas across their entire distribution range, with observed prevalence of 13.3% (real-time PCR) and 9% (conventional PCR) in guignas, and 6.1% (conventional PCR) in cats. Prevalence in guigna did not vary depending on age, sex, study area or landscape variables. Prevalence was higher in juvenile cats (16.7%) than in adults (4.4%). Molecular characterization of the virus by amplification and sequencing of almost the entire vp2 gene (1746 bp) from one guigna and five domestic cats was achieved, showing genetic similarities to canine parvovirus 2c (CPV-2c) (one guigna and one cat), feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) (one cat), CPV-2 (no subtype identified) (two cats), CPV-2a (one cat). The CVP-2c-like sequence found in a guigna clustered together with domestic cat and dog CPV-2c sequences from South America, suggesting possible spillover from a domestic to a wild species as the origin of infection in guigna. No clinical signs of disease were found in PCR-positive animals except for the CPV-2c-infected guigna, which had hemorrhagic diarrhea and died a few days after arrival at a wildlife rescue center. Our findings reveal widespread presence of Carnivore protoparvovirus-1 across the guigna distribution in Chile and suggest that virus transmission potentially occurs from domestic to wild carnivores, causing severe disease and death in susceptible wild guignas.

Peer review status:IN REVISION

18 Jun 2020Submitted to Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
18 Jun 2020Assigned to Editor
18 Jun 2020Submission Checks Completed
19 Jun 2020Reviewer(s) Assigned
20 Jul 2020Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
20 Jul 2020Editorial Decision: Revise Major