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The tip of the iceberg: genome wide marker analysis reveals hidden hybridization during invasion
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  • Hanna Rosinger,
  • Armando Geraldes,
  • Kristin Nurkowski,
  • Paul Battlay,
  • Roger Cousens,
  • Loren Rieseberg,
  • Kathryn Hodgins
Hanna Rosinger
Monash University
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Armando Geraldes
The University of British Columbia
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Kristin Nurkowski
The University of British Columbia
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Paul Battlay
Monash University
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Roger Cousens
University of Melbourne School of BioSciences
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Loren Rieseberg
The University of British Columbia
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Kathryn Hodgins
Monash University
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Abstract

Biological invasions are accelerating, and invasive species can have large economic impacts as well as severe negative consequences for biodiversity and ecosystems. During invasions, species can interact, potentially resulting in hybridization. Here, we examined two Cakile species, C. edentula and C. maritima (Brassicaceae), that co-occur and may hybridize during range expansion in separate regions of the globe. Cakile edentula invaded each location first, while C. maritima established later, apparently replacing the former. We assessed the evidence for hybridization in western North America and Australia, where both species have been introduced, and identified source populations with 4561 SNPs using Genotype-by-Sequencing. Our results indicate that the C. edentula in Australia originated from one region of eastern North America while in western North America it is likely from multiple sources. The C. maritima in Australia were derived from at least two different parts of Europe while the introduction in western North America is from a distinct source. Although morphological evidence of hybridization is generally limited to mixed populations in Australia and virtually absent elsewhere, our genetic analysis revealed relatively high levels of hybridization in Australia (34.13%), and supported the presence of hybrids in western North America (16.18%) and New Zealand. Hybrids might be commonly overlooked in invaders, as identification based solely on morphological traits may represent only the tip of the iceberg. Our study reveals a repeated pattern of invasion, hybridization and apparent replacement of one species by another, which offers an opportunity to investigate the role of hybridization and introgression during invasion.