Objectives: The early diagnosis of pertussis is a public health issue,
and there is a lack of sufficient lab testing. sTREM-1 has been found to
be a potential specific marker for infectious diseases. This study aimed
to evaluate the early diagnostic value of serum sTREM-1 to pertussis in
infants. Methods: In patients with suspected pertussis, various
potential indicators were evaluated, including serum sTREM-1, white
blood cells, serum C reactive protein, and serum procalcitonin.
Multiplex PCR of nasopharyngeal secretion was employed to identify B.
pertussis, and bacterial cultures and viral antigen detection were
performed. Cases in which the pathogen and various indicators were
present were considered as pertussis. Cases were divided into two
groups, the pertussis and non-pertussis groups, and then the indicator
results were analyzed. Results: Seventy-eight infants with pertussis and
42 infants without pertussis were analyzed; there were no significant
differences in terms of sex, age, onset time, feeding patterns, and
location of residence. The difference in serum sTREM-1 levels between
the pertussis group (238.99±71.95 pg/ml) and non-pertussis group
(104.04±49.38 pg/ml) was statistically significant (t = 10.8482,
P<0.05). Serum sTREM-1 had an AUC of 0.930, cutoff value of
142.5 pg/ml, sensitivity of 85.9%, and specificity of 83.3% (95% CI:
0.886–0.973, P<0.05). Lymphocyte proportion had an AUC of
0.871; however, white blood cells, C reactive protein, and procalcitonin
had AUC values below 0.7. Conclusion: The detection of serum sTREM-1 may
be useful for the early diagnosis of pertussis.