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Therapeutic Modalities in the management of COVID-19: A worldwide landscape
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  • Juhi Uttamani,
  • Gabriela Fernandes,
  • Shivani Pandey,
  • Venkatasruthi Surabathula,
  • Divya Bhat
Juhi Uttamani
University of Illinois at Chicago
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Gabriela Fernandes
SUNY Buffalo
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Shivani Pandey
Vishwanath Katti Institute Of Dental Sciences, KLE Academy Of Higher Education And Research
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Venkatasruthi Surabathula
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Divya Bhat
Nair Hospital Dental College
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Abstract

Several strains of the novel Coronavirus have been identified and countries around the world are conducting research to identify, map and compare each type. Its infection can manifest with symptoms ranging from uncomplicated non-specific illness to a more damaging syndrome that include mild to moderate pneumonia (Co-vid 19 pneumonia broadly categorised into the phenotypes: L-type and H-type); Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome; Sepsis and Septic shock. Although, this virus has a low mortality rate, the danger lies in its virulence and transmission dynamics. With more and more cases being reported, researchers and clinicians are promptly identifying and triaging the cases for treatment. Till date, there has been no drug identified to be efficacious cure for this infection. Using the WHO guidelines as a base, various medical institutions are continuously updating their guidelines for the identification and therapeutic management of persons infected with Co-vid 19, with a strong emphasis on IPC measures. The guidelines also highlight detailed supportive treatment including supplemental oxygen therapy, ventilation, intubation and management of specific complications. The current treatment is tailored to patient centred management for the existing co-morbidities and appreciate a progress in the prognosis. What is needed at this hour however, is a definitive drug therapy or vaccine. Different countries are rushing to find this and various trials are already underway. The aim of this article is thus to review salient features of specific therapies being used now and summarise the different clinical trials being conducted so as to stay abreast of the possible treatment modalities.