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Seroepidemiology of leptospirosis and molecular characterization of the first Leptospira strain isolated from Fernando de Noronha archipelago, Brazil
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  • Jean Carlos Silva,
  • Maria Marvulo,
  • Fernando Ferreira,
  • Ricardo Augusto Dias,
  • José Ferreira Neto,
  • Marcos Heinemann,
  • Geraldo Andrade Filho,
  • Gisele Souza,
  • Carlos Lima Filho,
  • Fernando Jorge Magalhães,
  • Walter Lilenbaum,
  • Odir Dellagostin,
  • Natasha de Oliveira,
  • Sérgio Jorge,
  • Frederico Kremer,
  • Cassia Santos,
  • Stephanie Esteves,
  • Bruno Miotto
Jean Carlos Silva
Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco
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Maria Marvulo
Faculdade Max Plank
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Fernando Ferreira
Universidade de São Paulo
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Ricardo Augusto Dias
Universidade de São Paulo
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José Ferreira Neto
Universidade de São Paulo
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Marcos Heinemann
Universidade de São Paulo
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Geraldo Andrade Filho
Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco
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Gisele Souza
Universidade de São Paulo
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Carlos Lima Filho
Unidade de Vigilância em Saúde
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Fernando Jorge Magalhães
Unidade de Vigilância em Saúde
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Walter Lilenbaum
Universidade Federal Fluminense
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Odir Dellagostin
Universidade Federal de Pelotas
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Natasha de Oliveira
Universidade Federal de Pelotas
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Sérgio Jorge
Universidade Federal de Pelotas
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Frederico Kremer
Universidade Federal de Pelotas
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Cassia Santos
Universidade de Santo Amaro
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Stephanie Esteves
Universidade de Santo Amaro
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Bruno Miotto
Universidade de Santo Amaro
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Abstract

Leptospirosis has been widely reported in insular environments worldwide, characterizing a major public health threat. Although low genetic biodiversity is expected in these regions, the introduction of domestic and synanthropic mammals may contribute to the wider diversity leptospiral strains in insular settings. This study proposes a large-scale investigation of Leptospira infection in animals from Fernando de Noronha archipelago, Brazil. A total of 1,265 blood samples from domestic (n=682), synanthropic (n=133) and wild (n=450) animals were collected between 2007 and 2014, totaling 12 species. The presence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies was investigated by the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) and kidney samples from synanthropic rodents were collected for the isolation of Leptospira spp. The leptospires recovered were further characterized by MAT with polyclonal antibodies, whole genome sequencing and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST). The MAT results revealed the presence of agglutinins in 90 samples (7.1%), and the most frequently found serogroup was Icterohaemorrhagiae (n=57) in practically all species included. Viable leptospires were recovered from one brown rat, and characterization revealed that the isolate belongs to L. interrogans serogroup Pyrogenes. This study stands as the most comprehensive investigation of Leptospira spp. infection in Fernando de Noronha archipelago, also providing the characterization of the first leptospiral strain ever isolated from an insular setting in Brazil. The results suggest that synanthropic rodents play a major role in the transmission of leptospirosis among wildlife and domestic species in the archipelago.

Peer review status:UNDER REVIEW

18 Jul 2020Submitted to Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
20 Jul 2020Submission Checks Completed
20 Jul 2020Assigned to Editor
22 Jul 2020Reviewer(s) Assigned
15 Aug 2020Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
16 Aug 2020Editorial Decision: Revise Major
18 Sep 20201st Revision Received
20 Sep 2020Submission Checks Completed
20 Sep 2020Assigned to Editor
20 Sep 2020Reviewer(s) Assigned