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Antimicrobial Peptides in Farm animals: An updated review on its diversity, function, mode of action and therapeutic prospects
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  • ROHIT KUMAR,
  • Syed Ali,
  • Sumit Singh,
  • Vanya Bhushan,
  • Manya Mathur,
  • Ashok Mohanty,
  • Jai Kaushik,
  • Sudarshan Kumar
ROHIT KUMAR
National Dairy Research Institute
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Syed Ali
National Dairy Research Institute
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Sumit Singh
National Dairy Research Institute
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Vanya Bhushan
National Dairy Research Institute
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Manya Mathur
National Dairy Research Institute
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Ashok Mohanty
National Dairy Research Institute
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Jai Kaushik
National Dairy Research Institute
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Sudarshan Kumar
National Dairy Research Institute
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Abstract

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are the arsenals of the innate host defense system exhibiting the ancient evolutionarily conserved characteristics that is present in practically all forms of life. Recent years have witnessed emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria compounded with a slow discovery rate for new antibiotics that has necessitated scientific efforts to search for alternatives to antibiotics. Research on the identification of AMPs has generated very encouraging evidences that they curb infectious pathologies and are also useful as novel biologics to function as immunotherapeutic agents. Being innate, they exhibit least toxicity to the host and exert wide spectrum of biological activity including low resistance among microbes, and increased wound healing actions. Notably, in veterinary science, the constant practice of massive doses of antibiotics with inappropriate withdrawal programs led to the high risk of livestock-associated antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, the world faces tremendous pressure for designing and devising strategies to mitigate the use of antibiotics in animals and keep it safe for the posterity. In this review, we illustrate the diversity of farm animals specific AMPs, their biochemical foundations, mode of action and prospective application in clinics. Subsequently, we present the data for their systematic classification by the major and minor groups, antipathogenic action, and allied bioactivities in the host. Finally, we address the limitations to their clinical implementation and envision areas for further advancement.