Plastic bronchitis is identified by the presence of branching mucoid
bronchial casts that obstruct airways. It is an uncommon condition,
which was more described in lung disease and post-surgery congenital
heart disease. We reported a case of a 26-month-old boy born at 29+6
weeks who presented with cough, wheezing and respiratory distress
secondary to atelectasis of the left lung. After admission, the patient
was treated with intravenous injection of azithromycin and
methylprednisolone, inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled budesonide with
short-acting beta-agonists and inhaled nebulized N-acetylcysteine.
Dramatically, the patient expelled large casts, shaping as the
tracheobronchial tree after a severe cough just on the night before the
bronchoscopy. In toddlers who were born preterm with recurrent wheezing,
the discharge of airway mucus secretion is altered, and the possibility
of bronchial plastics needs to be alert.