loading page

How to visualize and reconstruct the pulmonary valve and contiguous structures with intracardiac echocardiography: a simplified multi-step approach.
  • +4
  • Francesco De Sensi,
  • Luigi Addonisio,
  • Gennaro Miracapillo,
  • Marco Breschi,
  • Paolo Orselli,
  • Alberto Cresti,
  • Ugo Limbruno
Francesco De Sensi
usl 9
Author Profile
Luigi Addonisio
Misericordia Hospital
Author Profile
Gennaro Miracapillo
Misericordia Hospital
Author Profile
Marco Breschi
Misericordia Hospital
Author Profile
Paolo Orselli
Misericordia Hospital
Author Profile
Alberto Cresti
usl 9
Author Profile
Ugo Limbruno
Misericordia Hospital
Author Profile

Abstract

Ventricular tachycardia and premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) arising from right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) are the most common type of ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) in patients without structural heart disease. Radiofrequency ablation is now the gold standard of treatment in this setting due to high efficacy rates and optimal safety profile [2] During the last few years, the pulmonary valve (PV) and the pulmonary artery (PA) have attracted much attention as reliable sites of origin of RVOT-type arrhythmias. In the mean while intracardiac echocardiogram (ICE) has undoubtedly improved our understanding and approach to manage these arrhythmias accurately characterizing the PV and its contiguous structures. Aim of this paper is to provide an illustrated step-by-step guide on how to use ICE with the CARTOSOUND module to visualize and reconstruct 3D shell of the RV, the PV, as well of other anatomical structures (i.e., the aortic valve and coronary arteries) to perform aware and safe ablation in this region. A new reconsideration of the existent classification of these VAs is also provided.