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Demographic profile, food trigger associations and trends in outcome of infants with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: a single tertiary centre Australian cohort study
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  • Eric Lee,
  • Elizabeth Barnes,
  • Sam Mehr,
  • Dianne Campbell
Eric Lee
The University of Sydney
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Elizabeth Barnes
University of Sydney
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Sam Mehr
Children's Hospital at Westmead
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Dianne Campbell
University of Sydney
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Abstract

Background: Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE mediated food allergic disorder with a well-characterised clinical phenotype, but limited understanding of factors associated with food cross-reactivity, severity and tolerance. Methods: A retrospective cohort study spanning 20 years on children with acute FPIES from a single paediatric tertiary centre in New South Wales, Australia focusing on identifying food trigger co-associations and factors associated with reaction severity, multiple trigger FPIES and/or tolerance was performed. Results: 169 individuals with 329 recorded FPIES episodes between 1997 and 2017 were included. 49% were male. The median age at first FPIES reaction was 5 months and median age at diagnosis was 9 months. 73% experienced at least one severe FPIES reaction. Rice (45%), cow’s milk (30%), soy (13%) were the most common triggers. FPIES to rice or cow’s milk were strongly associated with increased odds of having multiple trigger FPIES. Associations between causative foods were seen with rice/oats, cow’s milk/soy, and fish/shellfish. No factors were associated with increased risk of severe reactions. Infants with rice and grains FPIES outgrew their reactions at an earlier age, compared to those with fish FPIES. Conclusions: Background: Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE mediated food allergic disorder with a well-characterised clinical phenotype, but limited understanding of factors associated with food cross-reactivity, severity and tolerance. Methods: A retrospective cohort study spanning 20 years on children with acute FPIES from a single paediatric tertiary centre in New South Wales, Australia focusing on identifying food trigger co-associations and factors associated with reaction severity, multiple trigger FPIES and/or tolerance was performed. Results: 169 individuals with 329 recorded FPIES episodes between 1997 and 2017 were included. 49% were male. The median age at first FPIES reaction was 5 months and median age at diagnosis was 9 months. 73% experienced at least one severe FPIES reaction. Rice (45%), cow’s milk (30%), soy (13%) were the most common triggers. FPIES to rice or cow’s milk were strongly associated with increased odds of having multiple trigger FPIES. The odds of having multiple food FPIES and severe reactions were slightly decreased with vaginal delivery. No factors were associated with increased risk of severe reactions. Infants with rice and grains FPIES outgrew their reactions at an earlier age, compared to those with fish FPIES. Conclusions: Rice remains the most common trigger for FPIES in this region with co-associations between rice/oats and cow’s milk/soy observed. The co-associations among food groups suggest that taxonomically related foods share similar protein structure and trigger similar mechanisms of antigen recognition. Vaginal delivery appears to have a mild protective effect on the development of multiple FPIES and severe reactions.

Peer review status:ACCEPTED

21 Sep 2020Submitted to Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
04 Oct 2020Reviewer(s) Assigned
20 Oct 2020Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
26 Oct 2020Editorial Decision: Revise Major
27 Nov 20201st Revision Received
01 Dec 2020Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
06 Dec 2020Reviewer(s) Assigned
28 Dec 2020Editorial Decision: Accept