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Risk factors for severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients: a review
  • +17
  • Ya-dong Gao,
  • Mei Ding,
  • Xiang Dong,
  • Jin-jin Zhang,
  • Ahmet Kursat AZKUR,
  • Dilek Azkur,
  • Hui Gan,
  • Yuan-li Sun,
  • Wei Fu,
  • Wei Li,
  • Hui-ling Liang,
  • Yi-yuan Cao,
  • Qi Yan,
  • Can Cao,
  • Hong-yu Gao,
  • Marie-Charlotte Brüggen,
  • Willem van de Veen,
  • Milena Sokolowska,
  • Mubeccel Akdis,
  • Cezmi Akdis
Ya-dong Gao
Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University
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Mei Ding
Wuhan University Zhongnan Hospital
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Xiang Dong
Wuhan University Zhongnan Hospital
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Jin-jin Zhang
Wuhan University Zhongnan Hospital
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Ahmet Kursat AZKUR
Kirikkale University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
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Dilek Azkur
Kirikkale Universitesi Tip Fakultesi
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Hui Gan
Wuhan University Zhongnan Hospital
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Yuan-li Sun
Wuhan University Zhongnan Hospital
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Wei Fu
Wuhan University Zhongnan Hospital
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Wei Li
Wuhan University Zhongnan Hospital
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Hui-ling Liang
Wuhan University Zhongnan Hospital
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Yi-yuan Cao
Wuhan University Zhongnan Hospital Department of Radiology
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Qi Yan
Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology
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Can Cao
Wuhan University Zhongnan Hospital
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Hong-yu Gao
Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology
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Marie-Charlotte Brüggen
University Hospital Zurich
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Willem van de Veen
University of Zurich
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Milena Sokolowska
Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research, University of Zurich
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Mubeccel Akdis
University of Zürich
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Cezmi Akdis
University of Zurich
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Abstract

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused an unprecedented global social and economic impact, and numerous deaths. Many risk factors have been identified in the progression of COVID-19 into a severe and critical stage, including old age, male gender, underlying comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, chronic lung disease, heart, liver and kidney diseases, tumors, clinically apparent immunodeficiencies, local immunodeficiencies, such as early type-I interferon secretion capacity, and pregnancy. Possible complications include acute respiratory distress syndrome, shock, disseminated coagulopathy, acute kidney injury, pulmonary embolism, and secondary bacterial pneumonia. The development of lymphopenia and eosinopenia are laboratory indicators of COVID-19. Laboratory parameters to monitor disease progression include lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) and ferritin. The development of a cytokine storm and extensive chest computed tomography imaging patterns are indicators of a severe disease. In addition, socioeconomic status, diet, lifestyle, geographical differences, ethnicity, exposed viral load, day of initiation of treatment, and quality of health care have been reported to influence individual outcomes. In this review, we highlight the scientific evidence on the risk factors of COVID-19.

Peer review status:Published

08 Oct 2020Submitted to Allergy
08 Oct 2020Submission Checks Completed
08 Oct 2020Assigned to Editor
08 Oct 2020Reviewer(s) Assigned
20 Oct 2020Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
21 Oct 2020Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
28 Oct 20201st Revision Received
28 Oct 2020Submission Checks Completed
28 Oct 2020Assigned to Editor
29 Oct 2020Reviewer(s) Assigned
08 Nov 2020Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
09 Nov 2020Editorial Decision: Accept
04 Dec 2020Published in Allergy. 10.1111/all.14657