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The da1 mutation in wheat increases grain size under ambient and elevated CO2 but not grain yield due to trade-off between grain size and grain number
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  • Isabel Mora-Ramirez,
  • Heiko Weichert,
  • Nicolaus von Wiren,
  • Claus Frohberg,
  • Stefanie De-Bodt,
  • Ralf-Christian Schmidt,
  • Hans Weber
Isabel Mora-Ramirez
Leibniz-Institut für Pflanzengenetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung Gatersleben
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Heiko Weichert
Leibniz-Institut für Pflanzengenetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung Gatersleben
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Nicolaus von Wiren
Leibniz-Institut für Pflanzengenetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung Gatersleben
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Claus Frohberg
BASF Innovation Center Gent
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Stefanie De-Bodt
BASF Innovation Center Gent
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Ralf-Christian Schmidt
BASF Innovation Center Gent
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Hans Weber
Leibniz-Institut für Pflanzengenetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung Gatersleben
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Abstract

Grain size is potentially yield-determining in wheat, controlled by the ubiquitin pathway and negatively regulated by ubiquitin receptor DA1. We analysed whether increased thousand grain weight in wheat da1 mutant is translated into higher grain yield and whether additional carbon provided by elevated (e)CO2 can be better used by the da1, displaying higher grain sink strength and size. Yield-related, biomass, grain quality traits and grain dimensions were analysed by two-factorial analysis, regarding genotype and eCO2. da1 increased grain size but reduced spikes and grains per plant, grains per spike and spikelets per spike, independent of eCO2 treatment, leaving total grain yield unchanged. eCO2 increased yield and grain number additively and independently of da1, but did not overcome the trade-off between grain size and number observed for da1. eCO2 but not da1 impaired grain quality, strongly decreasing concentrations of several macro- and micro-elements. In conclusion, intrinsic stimulation of grain sink strength and grain size, achieved by da1, is not benefitting total yield unless trade-offs between grain size and numbers can be overcome. The results reveal interactions of yield components in da1-wheat under ambient and eCO2, thereby uncovering limitations enhancing wheat yield potential.