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Renal Implications Following Cardiac Surgery: A Comprehensive Review
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  • Manasi Shirke,
  • Shalimar Baldemor,
  • Athira Azmi,
  • Amer Harky
Manasi Shirke
Queen’s University Belfast, School of Medicine, , UK
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Shalimar Baldemor
Queen’s University Belfast, School of Medicine, , UK
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Athira Azmi
Queen’s University Belfast, School of Medicine, , UK
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Amer Harky
Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
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Abstract

Background: Renal complications following cardiac surgery are fairly common and may require renal replacement therapy. Most of such cases recover with either conservative management or temporary, short period requirements for renal replacement therapy. Several studies highlight compelling evidence for such complications to be recognised and managed promptly. Aim: In this review, we aim to address the identified risk factors and pathophysiology of cardiac surgery associated renal injury. Furthermore, data regarding acute kidney injury and the long-term renal complications post-cardiac surgery will also be analysed. Methods: A comprehensive review of literature was conducted using appropriate keywords on search engines of SCOPUS, Wiley, PubMed, and SAGE Journals. Conclusion: Various risk factors during the periods of surgery have been identified to be linked to the occurrence of these adverse outcomes. Many of these factors have been identified through extensive research and are modifiable while several others are still unclear or needs deeper understanding and studies.