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Spatial epidemiology of bovine leptospirosis in Veracruz, Mexico
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  • Rigo Gutiérrez-Molina,
  • Pelayo Acevedo,
  • Sokani Sánchez-Montes,
  • Dora Romero-Salas,
  • Argel Flores Primo,
  • Anabel Cruz-Romero
Rigo Gutiérrez-Molina
Universidad Veracruzana, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia
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Pelayo Acevedo
Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos
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Sokani Sánchez-Montes
Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Facultad de Medicina
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Dora Romero-Salas
Universidad Veracruzana, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia
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Argel Flores Primo
Universidad Veracruzana, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia
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Anabel Cruz-Romero
Universidad Veracruzana, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia
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Abstract

Bovine leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects bovine herds, causing economic losses due to reproductive problems, which require expensive treatments. The main source of transmission for cattle is still uncertain, but it has been described that small wild mammals can play an important role in the transmission cycle by being maintenance hosts for the pathogenic species of the bacterium and spreading it through urine. In this study, we characterize possible risk areas for bovine leptospirosis in the state of Veracruz, Mexico; based on the geographical distribution of small wild hosts of Leptospira sp. reported in Mexico in addition with climatic, geographic, land use and human activities variables, and validated risk map with bovine seroprevalence data. We used a generalized linear regression model to understand the association between the appearance of bovine leptospirosis seroprevalences and the favorability of wild hosts of Leptospira sp. as well as environmental variables. The parameterized model explains 13.58% of the variance. The seroprevalence in cattle showed a negative relationship with elevation, geographic length and human population density, and a positive relationship with environmental favorability for the bats reservoirs and favorability for at least one rodent and opossum reservoir. The variation in seroprevalence is mainly explained by a longitudinal gradient (10.4% of the variance) and the favourability for bats (3.0% of the variance). Describing the possible risks of seroprevalence in an important and neglected livestock geographical region, we contribute to the selection of areas of strategies for diagnosis and prevention of this relevant disease.

Peer review status:IN REVISION

07 Oct 2020Submitted to Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
01 Nov 2020Submission Checks Completed
01 Nov 2020Assigned to Editor
10 Nov 2020Reviewer(s) Assigned
30 Nov 2020Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
02 Dec 2020Editorial Decision: Revise Major
17 Mar 20211st Revision Received
19 Mar 2021Submission Checks Completed
19 Mar 2021Assigned to Editor
22 Mar 2021Reviewer(s) Assigned
14 Apr 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
21 Apr 2021Editorial Decision: Revise Major