Implementation of pharmacogenomic testing service through community
pharmacy in the Netherlands: results from an early service evaluation
Background: Community pharmacy services have evolved to include medical
and pharmaceutical interventions alongside dispensing. Whilst
established pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing is available throughout the
Netherlands, this is primarily based in hospital environments and for
specialist medicines. Aim: The aim of this work was to describe how best
to implement PGx services within community pharmacy, considering
potential barriers and enablers to service delivery and how to address
them. Method: The service was implemented across a selection of
community pharmacies in the Netherlands. Data was captured on test
outcomes and through a pharmacist survey. Results: Following testing,
17.8% of the clinical samples were recommended to avoid certain
medication (based on their current medicines use), and 14.0% to have
their dose adjusted. Pre-emptive analysis of genotyped patients showed
that the majority (99.2%) had actionable variants. Pharmacists felt
confident in their operational knowledge to deliver the service, but
less so in applying that knowledge. Delivering the service was believed
to improve relationships with other healthcare professionals.
Conclusion: These results add to the evidence in understanding how PGx
can be delivered effectively within the community pharmacy environment.
Training pharmacists in how to respond to patient queries and make
clinical recommendations may enhance service provision further.