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Canine distemper outbreak by natural infection in a group of vaccinated maned wolves in captivity
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  • Vicente Vergara-Wilson,
  • Carlos Sanchez,
  • Maria Abarca,
  • Carlos Navarro,
  • Sebastian Celis-Diez,
  • Pilar Soto-Guerrero,
  • Nataly Diaz-Ayala,
  • Martin Zordan,
  • Federico Cifuentes-Ramos,
  • Javier Cabello,
  • Ezequiel Hidalgo-Hermoso
Vicente Vergara-Wilson
Departamento de Conservación e Investigación, Parque Zoológico Buin Zoo
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Carlos Sanchez
Oregon Zoo
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Maria Abarca
Universidad de Chile
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Carlos Navarro
Universidad de Chile
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Sebastian Celis-Diez
Parque Zoológico Buin Zoo
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Pilar Soto-Guerrero
Parque Zoológico Buin Zoo
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Nataly Diaz-Ayala
Parque Zoológico Buin Zoo
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Martin Zordan
Parque Zoologico Buin Zoo
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Federico Cifuentes-Ramos
Universidad de Chile
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Javier Cabello
facultad de medicina veterinaria universidad san sebastian
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Ezequiel Hidalgo-Hermoso
Departamento de Conservación e Investigación, Parque Zoológico Buin Zoo
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Abstract

Canine morbillivirus, also known as canine distemper virus (CDV) is one of the most important infectious diseases threat to the health and conservation of free ranging and captive wild carnivores. CDV vaccination using recombinant vaccines has been recommended for maned wolf (Chrisosyon brachyurus) after the failure of modified live vaccines that induced disease in vaccinated animals. However, there has been a lack of systematic evaluation about the response of this preventive protocol in zoo carnivores due to ethical reasons that do not approve vaccination trials with challenge in that species. Here we report a CDV outbreak in a captive population of maned wolf with an index case that was previously vaccinated with a recombinant vaccine. Five juveniles and one adult from a group of seven maned wolves housed in an outdoor exhibit died in April-May 2013 in a zoo in the Metropolitan Region, Chile. Clinical signs ranged from lethargy to digestive and respiratory signs. Diagnosis of CDV was confirmed by histopathology, antibody assays and viral molecular detection and characterization. The phylogenetic analyses of the nucleotide sequence of H gene of the CDV genome identified in the two positive samples suggest a close relation with the lineage Europe 1, commonly found South America and Chile. CDV infections in maned wolf have not been previously characterized. To the authors best knowledge is the first report of the clinical presentation of CDV in a canine species previously inmmunized with a recombinant vaccine. Further research will be necessary to understand the impact of CDV in wild maned wolf populations and new protocols (with boosters) that could improve the effectiveness of the recombinant vaccine against CDV in wild carnivores.

Peer review status:Published

08 Jan 2021Published in Pathogens volume 10 issue 1 on pages 51. 10.3390/pathogens10010051