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Phylogeographic study of the Bufo gargarizans species complex, with emphasis on Northeast Asia
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  • Chang-hoon Lee,
  • Jonathan FONG,
  • Jian-Ping Jiang,
  • Pi-Peng Li,
  • Bruce Waldman,
  • Jong Ryol Chong,
  • Hang Lee,
  • Mi-Sook Min
Chang-hoon Lee
Seoul National University
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Jonathan FONG
Lingnan University
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Jian-Ping Jiang
Chengdu Institute of Biology
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Pi-Peng Li
Shenyang Normal University
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Bruce Waldman
Oklahoma State University Stillwater
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Jong Ryol Chong
Korea University
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Hang Lee
Seoul National University
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Mi-Sook Min
Seoul National University
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Abstract

We conduct a phylogeographic and population genetic study of the Asiatic Toad (Bufo gargarizans) to understand its evolutionary history, and the influence of geology and climate of the region. A total of 292 individuals from 94 locations were genotyped for two mitochondrial DNA loci (cytb, ND2 gene) and five nuclear introns (Sox9-2, Rho-3, CCNB2-3, UCH-2, DBI-2). We performed a suite of phylogenetic, population genetic, and divergence dating analyses. The phylogenetic trees constructed using mitochondrial loci inferred B. gargarizans being divided into two major groups: West (China mainland) and Northeast (Northeast China, Russia and Korean Peninsula). As with previous studies of this species, we recover population genetic structure not tied to geographic region. Additionally, we discover a new genetic clade restricted to Northeast Asia that points towards the Korean Peninsula being a glacial refugium during the Pleistocene. The weak phylogeographic pattern of B. gargarizans is likely the result of multiple biological, anthropogenic, and historical—robust dispersal abilities as a consequence of physiological adaptations, human translocation, geologic activity, and glacial cycles of the Pleistocene. We highlight the complex geologic and climatic history of Northeast Asia and encourage further research to understand its impact on the biodiversity in the region.

Peer review status:UNDER REVIEW

29 Nov 2020Submitted to Ecology and Evolution
01 Dec 2020Assigned to Editor
01 Dec 2020Submission Checks Completed
01 Dec 2020Reviewer(s) Assigned
31 Dec 2020Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending