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Pitfalls to Avoid During Development of Anti-SARS-COV-2 Vaccine
  • Rashika Ahmed El Ridi,
  • Hatem Tallima,
  • Rashika El Ridi
Rashika Ahmed El Ridi
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Hatem Tallima
Department of Chemistry, School of Science and Engineering, American University, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University
Rashika El Ridi
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University

Abstract

Recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection requires a solid first line of innate immunity defense, namely release of interferon-alpha and beta, which interfere with viral replication. These critical defense factors are produced upon encounter of the RNA of the virus that succeeded in host cell invasion with the cytoplasmic innate immunity receptors, notably retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-1). A second line of defense would be the host generation of neutralizing and opsonic antibodies capable of preventing virus entry and virus spread, respectively. We need to avoid or dampen host generation of powerful cytotoxic T cells, which lead to destruction of the host heart, lung, kidney, and small intestine cells presenting the viral peptides on their surface membrane, and potential organ failure and destruction. We herein wish to demonstrate that the vaccine should be based uniquely on SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein subunit 1 polypeptide, because that subunit is released upon virus invasion, and does not penetrate host critical cells in the heart, lung, liver, kidney and 2 small intestine. Differently from all other viral peptides, subunit 1 peptides are not readily processed for presentation on the surface of the host structural cells, rendering them targets for the destructive action of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells.