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Biodegradable and Biocompatible Graphene-based Scaffolds for Functional Neural Tissue Engineering: A Strategy Approach Using Dental Pulp Stem Cells and Biomaterials
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  • Negar Mansouri,
  • Said Al-Sarawi,
  • Dusan Losic,
  • Jagan Mazumdar,
  • Jillian Clark,
  • S. Gronthos,
  • Ryan Doig
Negar Mansouri
University of Adelaide
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Said Al-Sarawi
The University of Adelaide
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Dusan Losic
University of Adelaide
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Jagan Mazumdar
The University of Adelaide
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Jillian Clark
The University of Adelaide
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S. Gronthos
The University of Adelaide
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Ryan Doig
South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute
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Abstract

Neural tissue engineering aims to restore function of nervous system tissues using biocompatible cell-seeded scaffolds. Graphene-based scaffolds combined with stem cells deserve special attention to enhance tissue regeneration in a controlled manner. However, it is believed that minor changes in scaffold biomaterial composition, internal porous structure, and physicochemical properties can impact cellular growth and adhesion. The current work aims to investigate in vitro biological effects of 3D graphene oxide (GO)/sodium alginate (GOSA) and reduced GOSA (RGOSA) scaffolds on dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in terms of cell viability and cytotoxicity. Herein, the effects of the 3D scaffolds, coating conditions, and serum supplementation on DPSCs functions are explored extensively. Biodegradation analysis revealed that addition of GO enhanced the degradation rate of composite scaffolds. Compared to the 2D surface, the cell viability of 3D scaffolds was higher (p <0.0001), highlighting the optimal initial cell adhesion to the scaffold surface and cell migration through pores. Moreover, the cytotoxicity study indicated that the incorporation of graphene supported higher DPSCs viability. It is also shown that when the mean pore size of scaffold increases, DPSCs activity decreases. In terms of coating conditions, poly-l-lysine (PLL) was the most robust coating reagent that improved cell-scaffold adherence and DPSCs metabolism activity. The cytotoxicity of GO-based scaffolds showed that DPSCs can be seeded in serum-free media without cytotoxic effects. This is critical for human translation as cellular transplants are typically serum-free. These findings suggest that proposed 3D GO-based scaffolds have favourable effects on the biological responses of DPSCs.

Peer review status:IN REVISION

09 Jan 2021Submitted to Biotechnology and Bioengineering
09 Jan 2021Submission Checks Completed
09 Jan 2021Assigned to Editor
12 Jan 2021Reviewer(s) Assigned
02 Feb 2021Editorial Decision: Revise Major
02 Feb 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
20 May 20211st Revision Received
21 May 2021Submission Checks Completed
21 May 2021Assigned to Editor
21 May 2021Reviewer(s) Assigned
02 Jun 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
02 Jun 2021Editorial Decision: Revise Minor