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The N-terminal domain of Spike protein contributes to antigenicity difference between porcine epidemic diarrhea virus genotypes G1 and G2
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  • Qi-long Qiao,
  • Ning Li,
  • Ming-zhen Song,
  • Jing Chen,
  • Pan pan Yang,
  • Yu-he Miao,
  • JUN ZHAO
Qi-long Qiao
Henan Agricultural University
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Ming-zhen Song
Henan Agricultural University
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Jing Chen
Henan Agricultural University
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Pan pan Yang
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Yu-he Miao
Fujian Shengwei Biotech Co., Ltd
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JUN ZHAO
Henan Agricultural University
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Abstract

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strains have been clarified into two genotypes, G1 and G2, based on the sequence of the spike (S) gene. Amino acid mutations that distinguish the two PEDV genotypes were mostly located in the N-terminal domain (NTD) (aa 1-380) of S protein. The fact of increased outbreaks of G2 subtype PEDV and the failure of G1 subtype PEDV strain (CV777)-based vaccine in China since 2010 suggested that multiple amino acid mutations located in the NTD altered the antigenicity of S protein. To determine the role of the NTD of S protein in the antigenicity difference, the NTD of the CV777 vaccine strain (G1) and CH/ZMDZY/11 strain (G2) was expressed in E. coli, respectively. polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) against genotype-specific S proteins were prepared by immunizing BALB/c mice using purified S proteins. Antigenicity was systematically compared by detection of PAbs against two genotype PEDV strains and purified S proteins using Western blot, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and serum cross-neutralization assay (SN). Consistent with the multiple amino acid mutations in the NTD of S protein, different antigenic cross-reactivity between the two genotypes was demonstrated. There was six-fold and more than twenty-fold difference in ELISA and SN titer between anti-CV777 S protein antibodies against G1 and G2 subtype strains, respectively. There was twofold and eight-fold difference in ELISA and SN titer between anti-ZMDZY S protein antibodies against G1 and G2 genotype strains, respectively. The results proved that the NTD of S protein contributes to the antigenicity difference between PEDV genotypes G1 and G2, and highlighted a G2 strain should be used to develop a vaccine for providing better protection against prevalent genotype of PEDV.