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Drivers of Solidago species invasion in Central Europe---Case study in the landscape of the Carpathian Mountains and their foreground
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  • Chathura Perera,
  • Tomasz Szymura,
  • Adam Zając,
  • Dominika Chmolowska,
  • Magdalena Szymura
Chathura Perera
Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences
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Tomasz Szymura
University of Wrocław
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Adam Zając
Jagiellonian University in Kraków
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Dominika Chmolowska
Polish Academy of Sciences Cracow Branch
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Magdalena Szymura
Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences
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Abstract

Abstract Aim: The invasion process is a complex, context-dependent phenomenon; nevertheless, it can be described using the PAB framework. This framework encompasses the joint effect of propagule pressure (P), abiotic characteristics of the environment (A), and biotic characteristics of both the invader and recipient vegetation (B). We analyzed the effectiveness of proxies of PAB factors to explain the spatial pattern of Solidago canadensis and S. gigantea invasion using invasive species distribution models. Location: Carpathian Mountains and their foreground, Central Europe. Methods: The data on species presence or absence were from an atlas of neophyte distribution based on a 2 × 2 km grid, covering approximately 31,200 km2 (7752 grid cells). Proxies of PAB factors, along with data on historical distribution of invaders were used as explanatory variables in Boosted Regression Trees models to explain the distribution of invasive Solidago. The areas with potentially lower sampling effort were excluded from analysis based on a target species approach. Results: Proxies of the PAB factors helped to explain the distribution of both S. canadensis and S. gigantea. Distributions of both species were limited climatically because a mountain climate is not conducive to their growth; however, the S. canadensis distribution pattern was correlated with proxies of human pressure, whereas S. gigantea distribution was connected with environmental characteristics. The varied responses of species with regard to distance from their historical distribution sites indicated differences in their invasion drivers. Main conclusions: Proxies of PAB are helpful in the choice of explanatory variables as well as the ecological interpretation of species distribution models. The results underline that human activity can cause variation in the invasion of ecologically similar species.

Peer review status:UNDER REVIEW

02 Apr 2021Submitted to Ecology and Evolution
05 Apr 2021Submission Checks Completed
05 Apr 2021Assigned to Editor
08 Apr 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
18 Apr 2021Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
07 May 20211st Revision Received
08 May 2021Submission Checks Completed
08 May 2021Assigned to Editor
08 May 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
15 May 2021Reviewer(s) Assigned