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Dengue virus type 2 replication is limited by activation of NOD2 and its interactions with RIP2 and MAVS adaptors in THP-1 macrophage-like cells
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  • Diana Domínguez-Martínez,
  • Daniel Nuñez Avellaneda,
  • Juan Castillo Cruz,
  • Gloria León-Avila,
  • BLANCA GARCIA-PEREZ,
  • Ma. Isabel Salazar
Diana Domínguez-Martínez
Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gomez
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Daniel Nuñez Avellaneda
Iowa State University
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Juan Castillo Cruz
Instituto Politecnico Nacional
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Gloria León-Avila
Instituto Politécnico Nacional
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BLANCA GARCIA-PEREZ
INSTITUTO POLITECNICO NACIONAL
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Ma. Isabel Salazar
Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas
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Abstract

The nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) and leucine-rich repeat receptors, such as NOD-like receptors (NLRs), have pivotal functions in the innate immune response to various viral infections participating during the recognition of pathogens and activation of signaling pathways. One NLR, NOD2, is a dynamic protein that is activated in the presence of viral genomes and metabolites. However, its participation in combating a dengue virus (DENV) infection remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of NOD2 in macrophage-like THP-1 cells during an in vitro infection with DENV type 2 (DENV2). The interactions of NOD2 with RIP2 and MAVS was examined in DENV2-infected and agonist-stimulated cells. The effects of downregulating NOD2 expression or signaling on virus loads was also evaluated. The cellular mRNA expression and protein levels of NOD2 on cells under the stimuli were quantified with RT-PCR, Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence. Both the mRNA and protein expression of NOD2 was enhanced in response to DENV-2 infection. Interactions of NOD2 with RIP2 and MAVS, analyzed with confocal microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation assays, were time-dependent and increased in the post-infection period, between 6 and 24 h. After silencing NOD2 expression, DENV2-infected cells displayed greater viral loads and decreased expression of IL-8 and IFN-α (measured in supernatants obtained from the cells), compared to the uninfected (mock control) cells or those transfected with irrelevant-siRNA. Thus, in response to a DENV2 infection, NOD2 was activated in THP-1 human macrophage-like cells, the production of IL-8 and IFN-α was enhanced, and viral replication was limited.