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Characterization of Epidermal Bladder Cells in Chenopodium quinoa
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  • Sophie Otterbach,
  • Holly Khoury,
  • Thusitha Rupasinghe,
  • Himasha Mendis,
  • Kim Kwan,
  • Veronica Lui,
  • Siria Natera,
  • Iris Klaiber,
  • Nathaniel Allen,
  • David Jarvis,
  • Mark Tester,
  • Ute Roessner,
  • Sandra Schmöckel
Sophie Otterbach
University of Hohenheim Faculty of Agricultural Sciences
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Holly Khoury
University of Melbourne School of BioSciences
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Thusitha Rupasinghe
University of Melbourne
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Himasha Mendis
University of Melbourne School of BioSciences
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Kim Kwan
The University of Melbourne
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Veronica Lui
The University of Melbourne
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Siria Natera
The University of Melbourne
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Iris Klaiber
University of Hohenheim
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Nathaniel Allen
University of Hohenheim Faculty of Agricultural Sciences
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David Jarvis
Brigham Young University
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Mark Tester
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
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Ute Roessner
School of Botany
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Sandra Schmöckel
University of Hohenheim Faculty of Agricultural Sciences
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Abstract

Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is considered a superfood, as it has favourable nutrient composition and is gluten free. Quinoa has high tolerance to several abiotic stresses, i.e. salinity, water deficit (drought) and cold. The tolerance mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Quinoa has Epidermal Bladder Cells (EBCs) that densely cover the shoot surface, particularly the younger parts of the plant. Here, we report on the EBC’s primary and secondary metabolomes, as well as the lipidome in response to abiotic stresses. EBCs were isolated from plants after cold, heat, high-light, water deficit and salt treatments. We used untargeted Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) to analyse metabolites and untargeted and targeted Liquid Chromatography-MS (LC-MS) for lipids and secondary metabolite analyses. We identified 64 primary metabolites, including sugars, organic acids and amino acids, 19 secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds, betanin and saponins and 240 lipids categorized in five groups including glycerolipids and phospholipids. Although we found only few changes in the metabolic composition of bladders in response to abiotic stresses, metabolites related with heat, cold and high-light treatments, but not salt stress, were changed significantly. Na+ concentrations were low in EBCs with all treatments, and approximately two orders of magnitude lower than K+ concentrations.

Peer review status:IN REVISION

30 Apr 2021Submitted to Plant, Cell & Environment
30 Apr 2021Assigned to Editor
30 Apr 2021Submission Checks Completed
10 May 2021Reviewer(s) Assigned
07 Jun 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
08 Jun 2021Editorial Decision: Revise Minor