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Chromosome-scale assembly of the Canary Island endemic spider Dysdera silvatica (Arachnida, Araneae) sheds light on the origin and genome structure of chemoreceptor gene families in spiders
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  • Paula Escuer,
  • Vadim Pisarenco,
  • Angel Fernández-Ruiz,
  • Joel Vizueta,
  • Jose Francisco Sanchez-Herrero,
  • Miquel Arnedo,
  • Alejandro Sánchez-Gracia,
  • Julio Rozas
Paula Escuer
Universitat de Barcelona
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Vadim Pisarenco
Universitat de Barcelona
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Angel Fernández-Ruiz
Universitat de Barcelona
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Joel Vizueta
Universitat de Barcelona
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Jose Francisco Sanchez-Herrero
Institut d’Investigació en Ciències de la Salut Germans Trias i Pujol
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Miquel Arnedo
Universitat de Barcelona
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Alejandro Sánchez-Gracia
Universitat de Barcelona
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Julio Rozas
Universitat de Barcelona
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Abstract

We present the chromosome-level genome assembly of Dysdera silvatica Schmidt, 1981, a nocturnal ground-dwelling spider endemic from the Canary Islands. The genus Dysdera has undergone a remarkable diversification in this archipelago mostly associated with shifts in the level of trophic specialization, becoming an excellent model to study the genomic drivers of adaptive radiations. The new assembly (1.37 Gb; and scaffold N50 of 174.2 Mb), was performed using the chromosome conformation capture scaffolding technique, represents a continuity improvement of more than 4,500 times with respect to the previous version. The seven largest scaffolds or pseudochromosomes cover 87% of the total assembly size and match consistently with the seven chromosomes of the karyotype of this species, including the characteristic large X chromosome. To illustrate the value of this new resource we performed a comprehensive analysis of the two major arthropod chemoreceptor gene families (i.e., gustatory and ionotropic receptors). We identified 545 chemoreceptor sequences distributed across all pseudochromosomes, with a notable underrepresentation in the X chromosome. At least 54% of them localize in 83 genomic clusters with a significantly lower evolutionary distances between them than the average of the family, suggesting a recent origin of many of them. This chromosome-level assembly is the first high-quality genome representative of the Synspermiata clade, and just the third among spiders, representing a new valuable resource to gain insights into the structure and organization of chelicerate genomes, including the role that structural variants, repetitive elements and large gene families played in the extraordinary biology of spiders.

Peer review status:IN REVISION

09 Apr 2021Submitted to Molecular Ecology Resources
13 Apr 2021Assigned to Editor
13 Apr 2021Submission Checks Completed
10 May 2021Reviewer(s) Assigned
09 Jun 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
11 Jun 2021Editorial Decision: Revise Minor