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Spatial epidemiology of Leptospira sp. exposure in bovines from Veracruz, México
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  • Rigo Gutiérrez-Molina,
  • Pelayo Acevedo,
  • Sokani Sánchez-Montes,
  • Dora Romero-Salas,
  • Argel Flores Primo,
  • Anabel Cruz-Romero
Rigo Gutiérrez-Molina
Universidad Veracruzana Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia
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Pelayo Acevedo
Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos
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Sokani Sánchez-Montes
Universidad Veracruzana Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas y Agropecuarias Poza Rica -Tuxpan
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Dora Romero-Salas
Universidad Veracruzana Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia
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Argel Flores Primo
Universidad Veracruzana Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia
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Anabel Cruz-Romero
Universidad Veracruzana Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia
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Abstract

Bovine leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects cattle herds, causing economic losses due to reproductive problems, which require expensive treatments. The main source of transmission for cattle is still uncertain, but it has been described that rodents and bats can play an important role in the transmission cycle by being maintenance hosts for the pathogenic species of the bacterium and spreading it through urine. In this study, we characterize possible risk areas for bovine leptospirosis exposure in the state of Veracruz, Mexico, based on the geographical distribution of flying (bats) and terrestrial (rodents and opossums) wild hosts of Leptospira sp. reported in Mexico in addition with climatic, geographic, soil characteristics, land use and human activities variables (environmental variables). We used a generalized linear regression model (GLM) to understand the association between the frequency of anti- Leptospira sp. antibodies (a proxy of exposure to) in cattle herds exposed to Leptospira, the favorability of wild hosts of Leptospira as well as the environmental variables. The parameterized model explains 12.3% of the variance. The frequency of anti- Leptospira sp. antibodies exposoure in cattle herds was associated with elevation, geographic longitude, pH of the soil surface and environmental favorability for the presence of rodents, opossums, and bats. The variation in exposure is mainly explained by a longitudinal gradient (6.4% of the variance) and the favorability-based indices for wild hosts (9.6 % of the variance). Describing the possible risks for exposure to Leptospira in an important and neglected livestock geographical region, we provide valuable information to the selection of areas for diagnosis and prevention of this relevant disease.

Peer review status:UNDER REVIEW

24 May 2021Submitted to Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
24 May 2021Assigned to Editor
24 May 2021Submission Checks Completed
27 May 2021Reviewer(s) Assigned