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Beliefs Towards Smoking and COVID-19, and The Pandemic Impact on Smoking Behavior and Quit Intention: Findings from a Community-Based Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study in Jordan
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  • Ala'a B. Al-Tammemi,
  • Muna Barakat,
  • Doa’a B. Al-Tamimi ,
  • Sami A. Alhallaq,
  • Dima M. Al Hasan,
  • Ghena M. Khasawneh,
  • Khalil Abu Naqera,
  • Raghad M. Jaradat,
  • Fadi W. Farah,
  • Hindya O. Al-Maqableh,
  • Alaa Abuawad,
  • Bayan Othman,
  • Zeinab Tarhini,
  • Hamza Odeh,
  • Moawiah Khatatbeh ,
  • Amal Akour,
  • Musheer A. Aljaberi,
  • László Róbert Kolozsvári
Ala'a B. Al-Tammemi
University of Debrecen
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Muna Barakat
Applied Science Private University
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Doa’a B. Al-Tamimi
Mutah University
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Sami A. Alhallaq
Jordanian Royal Medical Services
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Dima M. Al Hasan
Jordan University of Science and Technology
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Ghena M. Khasawneh
Jordan University of Science and Technology
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Khalil Abu Naqera
United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East Jordan
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Raghad M. Jaradat
Jordanian Royal Medical Services
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Fadi W. Farah
Jordan Ministry of Health
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Hindya O. Al-Maqableh
Yarmouk University Faculty of Medicine
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Alaa Abuawad
Applied Science Private University Faculty of Pharmacy
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Bayan Othman
Applied Science Private University Faculty of Pharmacy
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Zeinab Tarhini
University of Limoges Medical Faculty
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Hamza Odeh
Arabian Medical Relief (AMR)
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Moawiah Khatatbeh
Yarmouk University Faculty of Medicine
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Amal Akour
The University of Jordan
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Musheer A. Aljaberi
Universiti Putra Malaysia
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László Róbert Kolozsvári
University of Debrecen
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Abstract

Background: The relationship between smoking and Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) is still topical with mixed epidemiological evidence. However, the pandemic may affect people’s beliefs towards smoking as well as smoking behavior and quit intentions. Considering high smoking rates in Jordan, our current study aimed to assess (i) the beliefs that surround smoking and COVID-19, (ii) the pandemic impact on smoking behavior and quit intention. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jordan utilizing an online questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised 13 items on sociodemographic, health, and smoking profiles, 14 items to assess beliefs surrounding COVID-19 and the use of combustible cigarettes (CC), waterpipe (WP), and electronic cigarettes (EC), and 12 items to assess the pandemic impact on smoking behavior and quit intention. Results: 1163 never-smokers, 1044 current smokers, and 217 ex-smokers have participated in our study. The mean age of participants was 35.2 years (SD:11.06). Most participants have shown anti-smoking beliefs with around 72.9% believed that WP smoking is related to the risk of contracting COVID-19. Also, 71.7% believed that smoking CC may worsen the COVID-19 clinical course, while 74.1% of respondents believed that smoking has no protective effect against COVID-19. During the pandemic, about 28.1% and 19.3% of current smokers reported increased or reduced smoking, respectively, and many smokers reported their willingness to quit smoking due to the pandemic. Conclusion: Most participants reported anti-smoking beliefs during the pandemic. Nevertheless, the double-edged effect of the pandemic on smoking habits should be carefully considered, and reliable anti-smoking measures should be strengthened and sustained.

Peer review status:UNDER REVIEW

10 May 2021Submitted to International Journal of Clinical Practice
10 May 2021Assigned to Editor
10 May 2021Submission Checks Completed
03 Jun 2021Reviewer(s) Assigned