Pressure ulcers are commonly associated with microbial infections on the wounds which need an effective wound dressing. However, the silver dressings have shown promising result but they have toxicity and argyria. Hence, this study aimed to develop and characterize chitosan-polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanocomposite hydrogel loaded with phomopsidione as an antimicrobial dressing. The hydrogel being synthesized was analyzed with transmission and scanning electron microscopes. Drug release and mechanical properties were studied having confirmed the functional groups with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Finally, antimicrobial activities were evaluated against the clinical wound pathogens. The developed hydrogel was soft, flexible and elastic, having nanospheres of chitosan-PEG but no sign of aggregation under the electron microscopes. Releasing of phomopsidione from the nanocomposite hydrogel was slow and gradual following the first order of kinetic. On average, 34 μg/mL phomopsidione released per hour and 67.9% active ingredients delivered into the surrounding medium over the study period. Although, the bioactivity activity of the hydrogel was narrow-spectrum, it showed significant results against all Gram-negative bacteria and Candida utilis with 99.99% reduction of microbial growth. The findings reveal that the phomopsidione loaded hydrogel has a great promise to act as an antimicrobial dressing for chronic wounds.
Early detection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in pregnant females starts by a request of the gynecologists, which is based on their knowledge and awareness of the guidelines on conducting these tests. This is an observational cross-sectional study that investigated the gynecologists’ knowledge, attitude and practice regarding HBV during pregnancy across Jordan. A random sample of 150 gynecologists were approached, from 3 major cities in Jordan, and asked to fill a questionnaire that assessed their knowledge, attitude and practice. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS. One hundred and seven gynecologists have participated in the study. Most of the respondents were females, residents, and less than thirty years old. Although 97.2% of the practitioners agreed on the importance of the pregnant females on HBV, only 43% were aware of the obligatory protocol in Jordan regarding HBV screening, and only 55% would screen the pregnant females to HBV in-practice. Significant association was found between screening rates to HBV and both, level of specialty and experience of practitioners. Approximately 60% of practitioners were aware of HBV perinatal transmission risk. Only 19.6% always referred the infected pregnant females to other specialists regardless of the viral load. While 47.7% of practitioners agreed on recommending antiviral therapy for third trimester pregnant females, only 12.1% would always/often prescribe them. A noteworthy lack of Hepatitis B knowledge and screening practice among gynecologists in Jordan have been observed. A national program designed to increase the awareness of HBV testing in Jordan for both patients and gynecologists is called for.
Theories attempting to explain species coexistence in plant communities have argued in favor of species’ capacities to occupy a multidimensional niche with spatial, temporal and biotic axes. We used the concept of hydrological niche segregation to learn how ecological niches are structured both spatially and temporally and whether small scale humidity gradients between adjacent niches are the main factor explaining water partitioning among tree species in a highly water-limited semiarid forest ecosystem. By combining geophysical methods, isotopic ecology, plant ecophysiology and anatomical measurements, we show how coexisting pine and oak species share, use and temporally switch between diverse spatially distinct niches by employing a set of functionally coupled plant traits in response to changing environmental signals. We identified four geospatial niches that turned into nine, when considering the temporal dynamics of the wetting/drying cycles in the substrate and the particular plant species adaptations to garner, transfer, store and use water. Under water scarcity, pine and oak exhibited water use segregation from different niches, yet under maximum drought when oak trees crossed physiological thresholds, niche overlap occurred. The identification of niches and mechanistic understanding of when and how species use them will help unify theories of plant coexistence and competition.
Present study was conducted to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Liv.52 DS tablets in the management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) in an open label clinical study. Sixty male and female patients aged between 18-65 years with NAFLD from clinical examination, laboratory test, and ultrasound findings and those willing to give informed consent were included in the study. At the initial visit, a detailed medical history and symptomatic evaluation was done. Biochemical investigations included total bilirubin, aspartate and alanine amino transferase, serum alkaline phosphatase and total proteins. All the patients received Liv.52 DS at the dose of 2 tablets twice daily for a period of 2 months. Subjects were evaluated at baseline, at the end of 1st month, and at the end of 2ndmonth for Liver function tests, hepatomegaly by ultrasound and NAFLD Score, Lipid profile and for safety assessment of Hematology and biochemical investigations. Non-invasive NAFLD fibrosis score was calculated at each assessment visits to assess the severity of fibrosis due to NAFLD. A subgroup analysis was done in Diabetes Mellitus Subjects. Statistical analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism, Version 4.03 for windows, Graphpad Software. All the patients completed the study and data was available for analysis. Significant improvement in hepatomegaly, liver function parameters (SGPT, SGOT) was observed. A trend towards improvement in NAFLD score was seen signifying improvement in liver fibrosis due to NAFLD. Safety laboratory investigation results are within normal limits and there were no clinically significant adverse effects were reported during the clinical study. Subgroup analysis carried out in diabetic subjects further demonstrated beneficial effects in those populations suffering from NAFLD with respect to hepatomegaly and LFT levels. From the results of the study, it can be summarised that Liv.52 DS is safe and beneficial in individuals suffering from NAFLD.
Oxygen availability and overflow metabolism are often limiting factors in high cell-density cultures. In the present study, expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin in the chromosome of Escherichia coli was used as a strategy to improve plasmid DNA (pDNA) production in biphasic fed-batch cultures. During the fully aerobic batch phase, the strain expressing VHb accumulated 28 % less acetate and 19 % more pDNA than the non-expressing strain. The fed-batch phase was carried out with a change of regime from aerobic to microaerobic conditions. The pDNA yields from biomass increased consistently in the VHb-expressing strain during the whole culture, while decreased progressively for the non-expressing strain during microaerobic conditions. The ratio of positive/negative plasmid replication control molecules (RNAII/RNAI) were lower for the VHb-expressing than for the non-expressing strain. However, the final pDNA titer was ca. 74 % higher for the former. Flux balance analysis suggests that VHb presence increases the flux in anaplerotic pathways. The higher lactate production observed in VHb-expressing cells may be triggered by an increased demand of NAD+ in glycolysis under microaerobic conditions. These results are valuable for faster development of robust pDNA production processes.
Objective: To explore the prognostic factors of different prognosis SARS-COV-2 patients, including early cure (less than 3 weeks), severe death, severe survival (duration of disease over 30 days, stable condition). Methods: The general situation and laboratory tests and other relevant indicators of 50 early cured patients, 50 severe survivors and 50 severe deaths were studied. Results: Through a retrospective cohort study, there were significant differences in age, gender, respiratory distress symptoms, oxygen saturation of fingertip, state of consciousness between cured mild patients and dead patients. Diabetes and cerebrovascular disease were the main influencing factors of previous medical history. Most of the laboratory test indicators, such as the positive rate of nucleic acid test, blood routine test, myocardial infarction marker, DIC, liver and kidney function, inflammatory cytokines, are different between cured patients and dead patients. Further compared the cases of severe survival and dead patents, there were significant differences in gender, breath shortness symptoms, oxygen saturation of fingertip, consciousness, cerebrovascular disease. The laboratory tests showed that the blood routine test, MH, CK-MB, pro BNP,BUN, Cr, albumin, DIC, inflammatory factors and electrolyte disorders were great significance to the prognosis. Further study showed that CTnI, Cr and DIC and shortness of breath were independent prognostic factors of death. Conclusion: Our data may suggest that the main influencing factor of death was the degree of respiratory symptoms. The difference of prognosis was more related to whether there were multiple organ diseases, especially the heart, kidney and immune system dysfunction.
The mechanisms by which herbivores induce plant defenses are well studied. However, how specialized herbivores suppress plant resistance is still poorly understood. Here, we discovered a rice (Oryza sativa) leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, OsLRR-RLK2, which is induced upon attack by gravid females of a specialist piercing-sucking herbivore, the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens). Silencing OsLRR-RLK2 decreases the constitutive activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase (OsMPK6) and alters BPH-induced transcript levels of several defense-related WRKY transcription factors. Moreover, silencing OsLRR-RLK2 reduces BPH-induction of jasmonic acid and ethylene but promotes the biosynthesis of both elicited salicylic acid and H2O2; silencing also enhances the production of volatiles emitted from rice plants infested with gravid BPH females. These changes decrease BPH preference and performance in the glasshouse and the field. Our study identifies OsLRR-RLK2 as a major susceptibility factor of rice against BPH. It is likely to be employed by BPH to suppress host plant defenses for its own benefit via signaling crosstalk and/or changing the plant’s defense-related signaling profile.
In this theoretical study, we investigate the electronic potential energy curves, spectroscopic parameters, vibrational energy levels and transition dipole moments for the diatomic dications BeRb2+, BeCs2+ and SrRb2+. We consider an ab initio approach based on the use of non-empirical pseudopotentials and parameterized l dependent polarization potentials. Results show that 1-22Σ+ for BeRb2+, 1-52Σ+ for BeCs2+ and 1-32Σ+ for SrRb2+ are repulsive. While the 32Σ+ for BeRb2+, 42Σ+ for BeCs2+ and 42Σ+ for SrRb2+ are metastable states. These states can accommodate some vibrational energy levels. Interesting avoided crossings between some 2+ states are localized and examined. Until now no experimental and theoretical studies have been made for each system. Consequently, we discuss our results by comparing with some data of similar systems. Besides, the transition dipole moments of the ground state to a few excited states are computed and presented. The information associated with the electronic structures, spectroscopic parameters as well as the transition properties that provide in this paper is anticipated to serve as guidelines for further experimental and theoretical researches for each diatomic dication considered in this work.
Urea hydrolysis is widely used in agriculture, environment and other engineering fields, among which urease contained in beans can catalyze urea hydrolysis. The urea hydrolysis activity of legume plant leaching solution(LPLS) was investigated, including soybeans, black beans, mung beans, red beans as well as soybean hulls, soybean leaves, soybean stems and soybean pods. For the high urea hydrolysis activity and economic efficiency, soybean is most suitable for agricultural engineering and other fields than other beans and soybean-related parts extract. The urea hydrolysis activity increases with the concentration of LPLS, while decreases gradually with reaction time. When the heating temperature reaches 25, 35, 45, 55 and 65 ℃, the urea hydrolysis activity is steady and the enzyme activity is high. Enzyme activity decreases after 65 ° C (i.e.75, 90 ° C). Meanwhile, the soaking time of LPLS has a little effect on the urea hydrolysis activity compared with other factors. These results make a positive contribution to domestic production urease experimental basis.
Introduction: Silent cerebral events (SCEs) are related to the potential thromboembolic risk in atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. Peri-procedural uninterrupted oral anticoagulation (OAC) reportedly reduced the risk of SCEs, but the incidence still remains. Methods and Results: AF patients undergoing catheter ablation were eligible. All patients took non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs, n=248) or vitamin K antagonist (VKA, n=37) for peri-procedural OAC (>4 weeks) without interruption during the procedure. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed within 2 days after the procedure to detect SCEs. Clinical characteristics and procedure-related parameters were compared between patients with and without SCEs. SCEs were detected in 66 patients (23.1%, SCE[+]) but were not detected in 219 patients (SCE[-]). Average age was higher in SCE[+] than in SCE[-] (66±10 years vs. 62±12 years, p<0.05). Persistent AF prevalence, CHADS2/CHA2DS2-VASc scores, serum NT-ProBNP levels, left-atrial dimension (LAD), and spontaneous echo contrast prevalence in transesophageal echocardiography significantly increased in SCE[+] vs. SCE[-]. SCE[+] had lower baseline activated clotting time (ACT) before heparin injection and longer time to reach optimal ACT (>300 sec) than SCE [-] (146±27 sec vs. 156±29 sec and 44±30 sec vs. 35±25 sec, p<0.05, respectively). In multivariate analysis, LAD, baseline ACT, and time to reach the optimal ACT were predictors for SCEs. The average values of the ACT parameters were significantly different among NOACs/VKA. Conclusion: LAD and intra-procedural ACT kinetics significantly affect SCEs during AF ablation. Different anticoagulants have different impacts on ACT during the procedure, which should be considered when estimating the risk of SCEs.
How soil quality and microbial communities change in conjunction with stand age in plantations is poorly understood. Here, we evaluated soil quality by using an integrated soil quality index (SQI) and traced the paralleled shifts in fungal community composition by high-throughput sequencing in a chronosequence of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations (stand age of 3, 16, 25, 32, >80 years). Soil properties showed pronounced changes with stand age in the top 0-5 cm. The most prominent increase from 3 to >80-year-old stand was for soil organic carbon (SOC, by 2.1-times), total nitrogen (TN, 1.9-times) and available phosphorus (AP, 2.2-times). SQI increased logarithmically with stand age, with sharper change seen in the 0-5 cm layer than in the 5-15 cm layer. Mycorrhizal fungi increased in abundance initially in younger stands, but then they were gradually replaced by saprotrophic fungi in older stands due to the increase in litter input, which sustains saprotrophs. The positive correlation between saprotrophic fungi and the key soil quality indicators, such as TN, AP and NH4+, showed that higher soil quality was tightly linked with the enrichment of decomposers. Mycorrhizal taxa, such as orders Sebacinales, Thelephorales and Russulales, were positively correlated with acid phosphatase mobilizing P from organic matter. This suggests that the establishment of mycorrhizal fungi sustains tree productivity in younger stands under low soil quality. We conclude that the increase in soil quality throughout the development of Chinese fir plantations is closely linked with the observed transition of fungal communities from mycorrhizae to saprotrophs.
Birch(Betula platyphylla Suk.) bark contains important pentacyclic triterpenes as betulin and betulinic acid, which play important functions in anti-tumor and anti-HIV.Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase(CYP450) is essential for the diversification and functional modification of the triterpene skeleton.In this study, five new CYP450 genes were cloned from birch with ORF lengths of 1284bp, 1533bp, 1188bp, 1704bp, and 1539bp, respectively.Phylogenetic tree analysis shown that five BpCYP450 genes are located in five subfamilies, named CYP94B89, CYP89S1, CYP97B62, CYP86B54, and CYP86A182.The expression characteristics of five CYP450 genes in different tissues and their responses to different stresses(MeJA, SA, GA3, ABA, ethylene, and mechanical damage) were significantly different, among which CYP89S1, CYP97B62 and squalene epoxidase(BpSE) and dammarenediol synthase(BpDS) were highly expressed in leaves.CYP89S1, CYP97B62, and CYP86A182 genes are induced by MeJA and significant synergistic expression effects with lupeol synthase(BpW).CYP89S1, CYP97B62, CYP86A182 have C-28 oxidation function and catalyzing the conversion of lupeol to betulinic acid.Among them, CYP97B62 gene has the highest catalytic efficiency, increasing the content of betulinic acid by 1136%.In addition, co expression of BpMYB21 and CYP86A182 can significantly enhance the conversion and synthesis efficiency of betulinic acid in tobacco(Nicotiana tabacum L.), and CYP89S1 can enhance salt and alkali resistance in yeast(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Sickle cell anaemia(SCA) is a recognized cause of heart failure and pulmonary hypertension(PHT). However, the impact of PHT of right ventricular(RV) function has not been well elucidated. Objective To determine the impact of PHT on right ventricular function in patients with SCA. Methods Cases were adults with SCA with PHT. Controls were SCA patients without pulmonary hypertension. All patients were recruited in steady-state. Echocardiography was done for cases and controls. Measures of RV function used were RV fractional area change (RV FAC), peak tricuspid annular systolic velocity (Sʹ) and Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE). Pulmonary hypertension was estimated from Tricuspid regurgitation jet velocities. Right atrial pressure was estimated using the ratio of the Trans tricuspid early diastolic velocity to the early tissue doppler diastolic velocity of the tricuspid annulus. Values >35mmHg were said to have PHT. Results Out of 86 patients, there were 36 people with SCA that had tricuspid regurgitation- 11 with PHT, 25 without PHT. The mean values of RV systolic function- RV FAC (0.41SD0.1 vs 0.41SD0.1; p= 0.999), Sʹ (16.5SD5.1 vs 15.9SD4.3; p= 0.116) and TAPSE (30.7SD5 vs 29.7SD4.3; p=0.389) were not significantly different between cases and controls respectively. Trans tricuspid E/A ratio (1.49SD0.4 vs 1.61SD0.4; p=0.381) was essentially the same between both groups while the early trans tricuspid deceleration time showed a trend towards being shorter in those with PHT (194.1SD35.1vs 223.3SD53.6; p=0.084). Conclusion: The prevalence of PHT was 12.8% in SCA patients. There is no significant impact of PHT on RV function in SCA.
Objectives To establish the prevalence of operating anxiety amongst otolaryngologists. Background Performance anxiety is a reaction to performing a task under pressure, and is linked to worse outcomes in professional sport. Awareness of the negative impact that performance anxiety can have on both surgical outcomes and the mental health of surgeons is increasing. The Royal College of Surgeons has recommended further evaluation of anxiety amongst surgeons so that we can greater understand its implications. Design The Sport Competition and Anxiety Test (SCAT) is a validated questionnaire used to assess anxiety in professional athletes. A modified version was distributed via the Association of Otolaryngologists in Training mailing list. Responses were accepted September-November 2019. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS. Participants Information was collected on the grade and sex of respondent. Main outcome measures Anxiety levels were calculated using SCAT guidelines. Results 106 questionnaires were returned 67M:38F (1 unspecified). 22 consultants, 72 registrars and 11 core trainees completed the questionnaire (1 unspecified). 6% of otolaryngologists were identified as having high levels of anxiety. Male trainees were less anxious than female trainees, mean score 15 vs 18 (range 10-27 vs 11-29, p<0.05). 6% of senior registrars and 9% of junior registrars had high anxiety compared to 0% consultants. Conclusion This data suggests high levels of performance anxiety exist amongst ENT surgeons. Interestingly, the highest anxiety levels were found in females and registrar level surgeons. With increasing levels of pressure and higher burn-out rates amongst surgeons, the need to understand the relationship between anxiety and surgical performance has never been so important.
Background Application of genetically modified non-pathogenic bacteria expressing specific anti-tumor proteins under certain conditions specific to tumors is an effective approach for selective targeting of tumors. We developed here, for the first time, a novel spatiotemporal cancer targeted therapy applying engineered E. coli bacteria with capability of expressing cardiac peptides under hypoxic conditions of tumor. Method E. coli BW25133 was transformed with construction of co-expressing cardiac hormones and GFP. Bacteria bearing constructs were then IV administered in mice bearing tumors and then tumor localization, as well as tumor proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis biomarkers (Ki-67, VEGFR, CD31and MMP9), changes in cytokine profile, suppression of tumor growth and survival were analyzed. Results IV Administered bacteria bearing constructs could specifically localize at tumor site and express cardiac peptides under hypoxic conditions. Administration of bacteria significantly enhanced survival rate, suppressed tumor progression and lowered expression levels of MMP-9, VEGFR2, CD31and Ki67 as potent markers for angiogenesis, tumor proliferation and metastasis. Furthermore, applied bacteria resulted in significant reduction in the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, GC-SF, IL-12 and TNF-α proinflammatory cytokines, whereas increasing IL-10, IL-17A and INF-γ cytokines. Conclusion Overall, administration of E. coli bearing cardiac hormone expression construct could effectively suppress tumor growth, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis while enhancing survival rate in mice model of breast cancer.
Double orifice mitral valve (DOMV) is an unusual finding, most commonly seen with atrioventricular canal defect (AVCD). Due to the varied anatomical types, hemodynamic effects and co existence of other malformations, the surgical management of this anomaly can be challenging. Achieving a compromise between residual regurgitation and new stenosis, should be the aim of surgical intent. We present a case report of DOMV detected incidentally during surgery in a case of AVCD with severe MR.