Background and Purpose: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is implicated in the impairment of memory function. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) is involved in modulating synaptic and neuronal formation. Experimental Approach: The aim of this study is to examined the impacts of FGF2 on MHE pathology. Our study addressed whether FGF2 could trigger neuregulin 1 (NRG1) release to ameliorate synaptic impairment in MHE rats and in primary cultured neurons. Key Results: The results showed the decreased FGF2 expression in MHE brains. After treatment with FGF2, secreted neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and ErbB4 were increased, and the interaction of the 2 proteins was enhanced. Additionally, treatment with FGF2 or NRG1 induced synaptic formation, with increase in the activity of synapse and the density of dendritic spine, through Sirt1. NRG1 signaling was prevented by administration of FGF2, which acts through the FGFR1 in MHE rats. Finally, intracerebroventricular injection with FGF2 or NRG1 mitigated the impairment of synaptogenesis. Conclusions and Implications: The data suggest that FGF2 may be a promising latent therapeutic reagent for MHE pathogenesis.
In this article, the existence and uniqueness result for the solution of a singular third-order ordinary differential equation has been investigated on a semi-infinite domain [0,∞). Such differential equation arises in boundary layer flow near a stagnation point on a rough plate in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. A suitable similarity transformation is used to transform the governing partial differential equation into a nonlinear ordinary differential equation along with partial slip boundary conditions. The resulting equation with its boundary conditions contains two parameters: the magnetic parameter, M and the slip parameter, λ. Some properties of the velocity profiles such as monotonic behaviour and bounded are obtained before proceeding numerical results. Further, the asymptotic behaviour at the free boundary has also been discussed. The validation of the obtained solution has been done numerically by shifted Chebyshev collocation method. The velocity profiles are plotted to address the significance of the parameters. The results are also compared through the table with previous results and found remarkably good agreement.
Light heterogeneity can lead to the heterogeneity of morphological structure and physiological functions in different leaves. However, little attention has been paid to the effect of nonuniform illumination on morphological structure and photosynthetic performance between the two symmetrical portions along the main vein within individual leaves. This experiment was carried out by the method of combining site determination in the field and shading simulation in the phytotron using pima cotton which have cupping leaves. In the field, maximum net photosynthetic rate, leaf area, and leaf mass per area were positively correlated with daily photo irradiance (DPI), while the chlorophyll content related negatively with DPI. These results indicated that the heterogeneity of photosynthetic characteristics between two sides of along the main vein within individual leaves were related with its intercepted light energy. Further, the shading simulation experiments also verified this conclusion. Interestingly, compared to the both ambient leaves and individual shading leaves, the photosynthetic characteristics of both ambient leaves and shading leaves in shading half leaves were changed. Thus, we also discussed that the development of the photosynthetic characteristics in one side of the main vein in a leaf was systematically regulated by adjacent side.
There is not any medicine during the emergency of 2019-nCov has been an outbreak and we have already found antiviral phytomedicine Chinese elderberry will be inhibition of 2019-nCoV.This commentary used to be presented in June of 2013 at the first international symposium for the elderberry, the conference, held in the USA, many scientists were surprised to learn of the 9 native species of elderberry in China. This paper aims to publish our comment on the elderberry, as, since our initial presentation in 2013, no English literature references are present in China. Most Chinese horticulturists and farmers consider the elderberry a wild plant. It is regarded as a plant of little value due to its abundance and ease of harvest. This article contains details of the Sambucus species groups, including the botanical names, Chinese common names, geographic distributions, economic uses and full descriptions of the elderberry. In southwest China, where the climate is mildly warm, there are 2 species of elderberries; one, Sambucus adnata, is termed the “blood-red herb-elderberry” by local residents as the roots, rhizomes, and branches exude red-juice when broken. The second, named S. javanica or S. chinensis, is commonly called the “herb-elderberry”. In northeast China where the climate is cold, there are 7 species of elderberry, however, most scientists recognize only 2 main species: Sambucus. williamsii, commonly called the “woody-elderberry”, and Sambucus sibirica, commonly called the “Siberian woody-elderberry”. The other 5 species of elderberry in northern-east of China.
Abstract Mammals function as ecological engineers. The ecological relevance of mammals, shortage of data and increased human threats make the matter very essential and necessary to evaluate their diversity and current conservation status. Mammals’ diversity and their threats in Faragosa Communal Forest (FCF) areas are poorly surveyed. The study aimed at assessing medium and large-sized mammals of the study area, and their major threats in FCF. Survey of mammals conducted from August to December 2019 in FCF, Gamo zone, Southern Ethiopia. Transect line method using direct and indirect field observations used to collect data on mammals and their threats. A total of 685 individuals were id belonging to twenty-one mammalian species, six orders and thirteen families were observed. Hystrix cristata, Xerus rutilus, Marmota monax, Mellivera capensis, Chlorocebus aethiops, Papio anubis, Colobus guereza, Civettictis civetta, and Lapus hassinicus were among the medium-sized mammals while Tragelaphus imberbis, Redunca redunca, Ourebia ourebi, Sylvicapra grimmia, Phacochoerus aethiopicus, Pontamochoreus larvatus, Hippopothamus amphibus, Orycteropus afer, Crocuta crocuta, Panthera leo, Panthera pardus, and Canis mesomelas were the large mammals of the study area. Papio anubis and Chlorocebus aethiops were the dominant species identified. The abundant order recorded by the number of observations was order Primates (284 individuals) followed by order Artiodactyla (201 individuals) while the least abundant order was Tubulidentata (8 individuals). Among observed 685 mammals, 371 (54.16%) individuals were recorded in dry season while 314 (45.84%) individuals were recorded in wet season and abundance significantly varied between seasons (2 = 40.783; df = 20; < 0.05). The prevailing threatening factors identified were logging of trees for fuelwood and house construction, overgrazing, deforestation, hunting, mining, and invasive alien plants. As the area is rich in mammals and threatened by different factors, urgent conservation action is highly recommended. K E Y W O R D S diversity, Ethiopia, Faragosa forest, mammals, threats
L-lysine amino acid is cocrystallized with L-mandelic acid by the slow evaporation method. Single crystal X-ray analysis reveals that lysine-mandelic acid crystallized as a dihydrate form. In the crystalline state, the lysine molecule exists in the cationic form in which the backbone and side chain amino groups are protonated and the carboxylic acid is deprotonated. The carboxylic acid proton of the mandelic acid is transferred to the lysine side chain and thus carries a negatively charged ion. The lattice water molecules are located near the amino groups of the lysine. Intermolecular interactions formed between lysinium, mandelate and lattice water molecules are qualitatively analyzed using Hirshfeld surfaces and 2D-fingerprint plots. The energetics of different dimeric complexes is quantitatively analyzed using PIXEL energy analysis. Topological parameters derived from QTAIM framework are used to delineate the nature of different intermolecular interactions formed in the title complex.
With the continuously increasing cost of energy, conservation of energy in pressurized irrigation networks has become an important goal. Such networks are usually designed to irrigate sectors of approximately equal areas in turns. Pumps are often operated to guarantee the absolute maximum head required for all sectors. This design criterion, however, does not guarantee minimum energy consumption. In this study, the k-means clustering technique is used for grouping (sectoring) hydrants with the same characteristics to minimize energy consumption. Various dimensionless parameters are used to identify hydrants characteristics, the relative elevation z*, the relative distance l*, and the relative head h*. These parameters were combined with different integrations to determine the best combinations from an energy point of view. MATLAB - EPANET Toolkit is used to implement the suggested clustering technique and test the impact of proposed management on energy consumption. The proposed methodology is applied to a drip irrigation network at Kostol area, Egypt. Results show that sectoring the study area using the k-means technique based on dimensionless parameters leads to energy savings up to 16.23% for the whole irrigation season.
CONSTANS-LIKE (COL) family members are commonly implicated in light signal transduction during early photomorphogenesis. However, some of their functions remain unclear. Here we propose a role for COL13 on the hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that COL13 RNA accumulates to high levels in hypocotyl, and that disruption of COL13 function via T-DNA insertion or RNAi led to longer hypocotyl of Arabidopsis seedlings in red light. On the contrary, overexpression of COL13 resulted in shorter hypocotyl. With various genetic, genomic and biochemical assays, we proved that another COL protein named COL3 directly bound to the promoter of COL13, and the promoter region of COL3 was targeted by the transcription factor LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), to form a HY5-COL3-COL13 regulatory chain for regulating hypocotyl elongation in red light. In addition, further study demonstrated that COL13 interacted with COL3 and COL13 promoted the interaction between COL3 and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1), suggesting a possible COP1-dependent COL3-COL13 feedback pathway. Our results provides new information regarding the genes network in mediating hypocotyl elongation.
Decades of research have helped establish the positive relationships between species richness and ecosystem biomass. However, species richness or related taxonomic metrics do not fully capture the functional differences between species, nor are they sufficient to reflect overall stand complexity. Further, the relative importance of structural diversity, functional trait dominance and diversity for stand biomass is still controversial, especially in multispecies stands with differential intra- and interspecific functional and structural patterns. In this study, we used plot level floristic and functional trait data in mixed-species plantations in West Africa, to examine the relationship between multiple diversity metrics and AGB. Multi-model inference and subset regression analyses were performed to identify the most important diversity metrics for AGB. Structural equation models were also used to evaluate both direct and indirect responses of AGB. Overall, 23 species were enumerated in the mixed species stands, plot level values ranging from 1 to 12 species. AGB was in average 15.5 Mg/plot, and varied from 9.3 to 23.1 Mg/plot. The relationship between taxonomic diversity and AGB varied with specific metric. Among taxonomic diversity metrics, only species richness correlated positively with AGB. Neither the single trait-functional diversity nor the functional dominance played a significant role in predicting AGB. In contrast, functional evenness and structural diversity showed positive effects on AGB, and mediated its positive response to species richness. This work reveals that functional evenness showed a significant advantage in predicting and mediating AGB response to species richness, when compared with structural diversity. It also suggests that niche complementarity plays a crucial role in enhancing AGB in mixed plantations, and operates through functional evenness and structural diversity. Maintaining high structural diversity and functional diversity would contribute to preserve biodiversity and enhance stand biomass stock in mixed species plantations.
The aim of this article is to use an Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) to solve the Aircraft Landing Problem (ALP) in an Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM) environment. The ALP addresses the function of generating optimal or near-optimal landing sequences and time intervals between arrivals to provide runway capacity increase and reduce air delay. Problems of the ALP type in a dynamic environment such as Air Traffic Control (ATC) are considered Non-Polynomial (NP) complete. We simulated three different models. In the first model, the algorithm was applied when there was a schedule conflict between aircraft and separation measures where used to ensure safety. On the second and third models,we scheduled the flights in hourly batches. In the third model, a Maximum Constrained Shift (MCS) restriction was introduced to simulate more realistic conditions. To test the effectiveness of our study, we used actual data from Guarulhos International Airport. Results showed a capacity gain of 12 aircraft and a delay decrease of five percent when compared to the airport current sequencing operations. Introducing this technique represents a shift from the current arrival sequence model to a Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO) model, balancing air traffic demand with airspace capacity to ensure the most efficient use of the airspace system.
Chloroplasts, the site of the primary reactions of photosynthesis, are organelles capable of independent protein synthesis, but which depend on the nucleus for most polypeptides. The process of photosynthesis is especially sensitive to environmental conditions and the composition of the photosynthetic apparatus can be modulated in response to environmental change. This acclimation process requires close communication between chloroplast and nucleus. Here we present evidence that the form in which carbon is exported from the chloroplast encodes information about the metabolic status of the photosynthetic apparatus which in turn controls photosynthetic acclimation.
Rational, aims and objectives: This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of using insulin pen in diabetes and determine the related factors to the KAP, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and glycemic control status. Methods: In our descriptive study, 148 patients with diabetes were interviewed by 16-item questions on knowledge and 8 questions on attitude, and were asked to present the insulin pen injection technique with a sample insulin pen. Results: Proportions of patient having a good knowledge, positive attitude, and good practice were 45.9%, 78.4%, and 44.6%, respectively. The three most incorrect steps were skipping to prime pen needle (90.9%), not removing the used needle from the pen after using (87.8), and not holding for specific count time before withdrawal of pen needle from skin (50.7%). Patients having duration of insulin one year or more had better knowledge (p=0.025), more positive attitude (p=0.017), and better practice of insulin (p=0.042). Patients using insulin combined with oral diabetic medications or having history of using insulin vials had more positive attitude of insulin role (0.038). Frequency of having good knowledge was statistically significantly higher in participants who received counseling from health professionals previously (p=0.001). The study also found a positive correlation between good knowledge of patients and good practical skills (p<0.001). Patients with poor practice of insulin were more likely to have ADRs at the injection sites (p = 0.013). The worse knowledge of patients was significant related to the higher risk of hypoglycemia (p=0.001). KAP levels did not correlate with glycemic control status. Conclusions: Positive attitude in patients was recorded at a significant rate; however, knowledge and practice needs improvement. This study was helpful to shape the patient education and target specific patients for education.
1. Global warming is rapidly emerging as a universal threat that could alter the distribution of many animal species and change their morphology, physiology, behavior and life history. The heat dissipation limitation (HDL) hypothesis proposes that females’ reproductive performance is limited by their capacity to dissipate heat. Although exposure to wind is known to increase heat exchange, its effect on reproductive performance is unknown. 2. In this study, the effect of simulated wind on the energy budget and milk energy output of female striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis) was measured under cool (21°C) and hot (32.5°C) ambient temperatures and the preference of hamsters for windy conditions in lactating females was tested both in the laboratory and the wild. 3. Females lactating at 32.5°C significantly decreased their energy intake and milk output, and raised lighter offspring than those lactating at 21°C. Exposure to wind significantly increased both energy intake during lactation and heat loss at both temperatures. Females lactating at 32.5°C considerably increased their reproductive output when exposed to wind. Moreover, females kept at an ambient temperature of 21°C preferred sheltered conditions whereas those kept at 32.5°C preferred exposure to simulated wind. We captured significantly more lactating female hamsters on windy days in summer and on calm days in spring. Wrapping a glass vessel in the fresh pelt of a striped hamster significantly reduced the rate of both water loss and cooling. 4. These findings support the HDL hypothesis; high ambient temperatures do appear to limit the energy intake and reproductive output of lactating hamsters. Small mammals lactating under hot conditions may be able to utilize the cooling properties of wind to increase their energy intake and milk production, and thereby their reproductive output and fitness.
Silicon (Si) can alleviate Na+ toxicity by decreasing bypass flow in salt-stressed rice (Oryza sativa L.), however, the underlying mechanisms remain veiled. Here, we demonstrate how Si decreases bypass flow and alleviates salt toxicity at physiological and molecular levels by using two rice mutants (lsi1 and lsi2, defective in OsLsi1 and OsLsi2, respectively) and their wild types (WTs). Under salt stress, Si promoted plant growth and decreased Na+ root-to-shoot translocation in WTs, but not in mutants. Simultaneously, both quantitative estimation and fluorescent visualization of trisodium-8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulphonic (PTS, an apoplastic tracer) show Si blocked bypass flow in WTs, but not in mutants. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) shows Si was deposited at root endodermis in WTs, but not in mutants. Moreover, root split experiment using lsi1 WT shows shoot Si accumulation down-regulated the expression of Si transport genes (OsLsi1 and OsLsi2) in root and accelerated Si deposition at root endodermis. In summary, our results reveal that 1) Si deposition at root endodermis reduces bypass flow, thereby alleviating salt toxicity in rice, and 2) the deposition of Si, which could be an active and physiologically-regulated process, is mediated by the cooperation of OsLsi1 and OsLsi2 and regulated by shoot Si accumulation.
Tropical forests are experiencing unprecedented high temperature conditions due to climate change that could limit their photosynthetic functions. We studied the high temperature sensitivity of photosynthesis in a rainforest site in southern Amazonia, where some of the highest temperatures and most rapid warming in the Tropics have been recorded. The quantum yield (Fv/Fm) of photosystem II was measured in seven dominant tree species using leaf discs exposed to varying levels of heat stress. T50 was calculated as the temperature at which Fv/Fm) was half the maximum value. T5 is defined as the breakpoint temperature, at which Fv/Fm) decline was initiated. Leaf thermotolerance in the rapidly warming Southern Amazonia was the highest recorded for forest tree species globally. T50 and T5 varied between species, with one mid storey species, Amaioua guianensis, exhibiting particularly high T50 and T5 values. While the T50 values of the species sampled were several degrees above the maximum air temperatures experienced in southern Amazonia, the T5 values of several species are now exceeded under present-day maximum air temperatures.
We consider a 2-D study of a plate with finite thickness and infinite extent. The upper plate surface is considered traction free and subjected to an axisymmetric heating. The lower surface is thermally insulated and layed on a rigid foundation. A cylindrical heat source affects the plate. This problem is relevant to the generalized thermoelasticity theory with one relaxation time. Laplace and Hankel transforms are considered. We use Inverse Hankel and Laplace transforms numerically. All related functions are showed graphically.
his study describes the response of Arthrospira platensis to a variety of temperature conditions as reflected in variations of photosynthetic parameters, pigmentation, and biomass productivity in indoor photobioreactor (PBR) cultivations. These experiments are designed to better understand the impact of temperature, seasonal variations, and acclimation effects on outdoor biomass production. The irradiance levels and temperature range (20 – 39°C) are chosen to enable modeling of semi-continuous operation of large-scale outdoor PBR deployments. Overall, the cultivations were quite stable with some pigment-related instabilities after prolonged high temperature exposure. Changes in productivity with temperature, as reflected in measured photosynthetic parameters, are immediate and mainly attributable to the temperature dependence of the photosaturation parameter, a secondary factor being variation in pigment content. This study confirms that temperature is critical for optimal performance of Arthospira platensis for both biomass and pigment production and provides a basis for risk assessments related to temperature mitigation for large-scale outdoor cultivations. Finally, the biomass productivities in a semi-continuous operation mode are quantitatively reproduced with a productivity model incorporating the photosynthetic parameters measured herein. Those productivities are in good agreement with extensive outdoor testing in PBR arrays at large scale (24,000 L) and over long time periods (up to 18 months).
This DFT study treats thermal metal-catalyzed alkene aziridination by azides, where the catalysts are copper(II) triflate, cobalt(II) porphin and ruthenium(II) porphin. Three azides RN3 (R = H, Me, Ac) react with alkene substrates in the presence of these catalysts leading to aziridine formation by a two-step catalysed mechanism. In Step I, the azide reacts with the catalyst to first form a metal nitrenoid via transition state TS1. The Ru(porph) catalyst is particularly effective for Step I. In Step II, the metal nitrenoid adds to the alkene via TS2 giving the aziridine product. Cu(trfl)2 is most effective as a catalyst for Step II. The facility order H > Me > Ac (with respect to the azide R group) holds for Step I, and the reverse order for Step II. Transition states TS1 and TS2 are described as “early” and “late”, respectively, in good accord with Hammond’s postulate.