A 39-year-old woman was admitted with right leg deep venous thrombosis (DVT). She was started on apixaban tablets but developed pulmonary embolism. The medical history showed sleeve gastrectomy. The failure of the antithrombotic drug shed light on the efficacy and pharmacodynamic changes of DOACs after bariatric surgery
In this study the cucumber and wheat plants were used to clarify the mechanism of redroot pigweed’s allelopathic effects on photosynthesis. In order to reach that goal, plants were cultivated hydroponically, treated by redroot pigweed’s leachate and finally chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic pigments content and the expression of photosynthetic genes (PsbA and PsbS) and allelochemical interaction with proteins of studied genes were analyzed. After exposure to the allelopathic stress, significant differences in the majority of photosynthetic characteristic were observed in the studied species. Redroot pigweed allelopathy led to alteration in photosynthesis performance, photochemistry, and photosynthetic genes expression of cucumber and wheat plants, ultimately its results were observed in morphological traits of plants. Molecular docking study strongly confirmed the possibility of direct binding and action of allelopathic compounds with allelopathic action’s target proteins. Overall, this study showed that compared to cucumber, the wheat plant is able to withstand the damaging effects of amaranth allelopathy on photosynthesis in order to resist and survive.
2.4 The relationship between levels of IL-10, IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-α, IP-10 and IL-4 and antibody concentration in serum samples of COVID-19 patientsThe correlation analysis of levels of IL-10, IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-α, IP-10 and antibody concentration in serum samples of COVID-19 patients were shown in Table 3. It was found that the levels of IP-10 in COVID-19 patients were positively correlated with the level of IgM (r=0.255, P<0.05), while the levels of TNF-α were negatively correlated with the level of IgG (r=-0.217, P<0.05), but there were no significant correlation between the levels of IL-10, IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1 and IL-4 and the concentrations of IgG and IgM.
Scientific activities including university classes, wet lab research activities, fieldwork, and seminars/conferences have been cancelled in response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemics. While the public health priority was to contain and mitigate the outbreak, the science sector swiftly adopted technologies to stay connected and continue the scientific activities as much as possible. Creativity, ingenuity, and resilience abound in the science community manifested in successful examples of truly global activities such as seminar series and conferences. While these platforms were initially concerned with maintaining the continuum of science education and dissemination, they attracted participants beyond the boundaries of their respective institutions and countries and thereby increased the equity. While the communities and countries are easing the societal restrictions and the scientific community returns to on-site work, it is important to learn the lessons and ensure equity in science education and dissemination moving forward.
The amphibian chytrid fungus (Bd) has caused extinction of amphibian populations worldwide. Early and accurate Bd detection is essential for management and treatment of susceptible anurans. We analyzed the effectiveness of an in-situ DNA extraction along with handheld mobile quantitative PCR (qPCR) thermocycler to detect Bd on skin frog swabs, and to detect Bd in water samples using environmental DNA (eDNA). We collected duplicate eDNA samples and skin swabs from three Bd positive Rana sierrae populations. We processed one set of samples using a field protocol (a handheld thermocycler), and the other half using a standard lab protocol. We detected Bd DNA in all R. sierrae swabbed across all three sites using both the field and lab protocols. We also detected Bd DNA in eDNA samples collected at two of the three sites using both the field and lab protocols although the field and lab protocol failed to detect Bd eDNA at separate sites. The probability of detecting Bd DNA in the technical replicates was lower for the field protocol compared to samples extracted using the lab protocol, suggesting the field protocol has reduced sensitivity and may not detect low quantities of DNA. Our results suggest the field extraction protocol using a handheld qPCR platform is a promising tool for rapid detection of Bd in susceptible amphibian populations. The field protocol yielded accurate results in less than 60 minutes. However, the applied field protocol may be prone to false negatives when analyzing low-quantity DNA samples (i.e. eDNA).
Non-native vegetation with high canopy closure can alter the equilibrium relationship between soil water and plant growth into a non-equilibrium relationship leading to soil degradation, vegetation decline and crop failure in the most part of water- limited regions. There is a need for the application of a novel theory in the assessment and the adjustment of non-equilibrium relationships to facilitate the sustainable management of non-native vegetation in the course of vegetation restoration in such regions. Therefore, a novel theory, Soil Water Resources Use Limit by Plant (SWRULP) has been developed. SWRULP refers to the amount of water stored in the maximum infiltration depth (MID) at which the soil moisture content in each layer is equivalent to the wilting coefficient. The wilting coefficient is expressed by the wilting coefficient of indicator plants in a plant community. SWRULP is an index for assessing plant overuse of soil water resources and the estimation of the starting time to regulate the relationship between soil water and plant growth in addition to the selection of the most suitable tree or plant species for vegetation restoration activities. To better understand SWRULP, in the present study, the SWRULP was assessed in a Caragana shrubland and an alfalfa grassland in semiarid loess hilly region. The results showed that the wilting coefficient varied with soil depth, and the SWRULP changed based on site conditions and vegetation type. When the soil water resources were equivalent to the SWRULP, soil water influenced plant growth considerably and caused the discoloration of sclerophyllous plants, abscission, cessation of growth, and soft leaf plant wilt. Under such conditions, the relationship between soil water and plant growth should be regulated based on soil water carrying capacity for vegetation to achieve sustainable use of soil water resource and sustainable management of forest and grassland and utilization, in addition to sustainable development.
Diverse algae possess vegetative desiccation tolerance, the ability to recover from extreme desiccation without forming specialized resting structures. Green algal genera such as Tetradesmus (Sphaeropleales, Chlorophyceae) contain both terrestrial and aquatic species, providing an opportunity to compare physiological traits associated with the transition to land in closely related taxa. We subjected six species from aquatic and terrestrial habitats to three desiccation treatments varying in final relative humidity followed by short- and mid-term rehydration. We tested the capacity of the algae to recover from desiccation using the effective quantum yield of photosystem II as a proxy for physiological activity. The degree of recovery was dependent both on the habitat of origin and the desiccation scenario, with terrestrial, but not aquatic species, recovering from desiccation. Distinct strains of each species responded similarly to desiccation and rehydration, with the exception of one aquatic strain that recovered from the mildest desiccation. Cell ultrastructure was uniformly maintained in both aquatic and desert species during dehydration and rehydration, but staining with an amphiphilic styryl dye indicated desiccation-induced damage to the plasma membrane in the aquatic species. These analyses demonstrate that terrestrial Tetradesmus possess the vegetative desiccation tolerance phenotype, making these species ideal for comparative omics studies.
We're presenting a unique case where a 2 month old female presented with URI symptoms at a local clinic and went into cardiac arrest after a nasopharyngeal swab test was done. Subsequent work up revealed she had an intrapericardial mass and a large pericardial effusion, which may have precipitated the arrest. The patient recovered after emergent pericardiocentesis and subsequent pericardial mass excision via sternotomy and pericardiectomy. The infant was recovering appropriately at her 4 month post-op follow up.
Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding is a common tool for measuring and cataloguing biodiversity, yet standard methodological approaches to generate metabarcoding data sets have yet to emerge, in part due to challenges understanding the biological and technical biases that affect eDNA profiles. Here, we explore how two experimental choices – depth of sequencing of PCR amplicon libraries and the number of PCR replicates – influence estimates of α and β diversity. We extracted DNA from six soil samples from three ecologically distinct locations, performed 24 PCR replicates from each using two common metabarcodes, and sequenced each to an average depth of 83,898 reads. We found PCR replicates are consistent in composition and relative abundance of abundant taxa, allowing differentiation of samples and sites. However, rare taxa were unique to one or a few replicates, suggesting that even large numbers of experimental replicates may be insufficient to catalogue biodiversity fully. We recommend that to differentiate sites, separately sequencing only a minimum of two PCR replicates to a depth that allows 1,000 reads identified to taxa, is sufficient to differentiate sites. We also conclude that metabarcoding is impractical for exhaustive taxonomic inventory and, because rare taxa are not amplified consistently, taxonomic tallies that rely on consensus among replicates artificially lower richness estimates. These findings provide new considerations for eDNA experimental design and data interpretation.
Although early postoperative outcomes after Fontan improved in the modern era, the convincing evidence in the resource-scare setting was sparse. Our study aimed to determine the incidence of early Fontan failure (EFF) in a contemporary series of palliated patients and to identify its potential risk factors. A single-center retrospective study was conducted between 2012 and 2019 on 145 patients undergoing the Fontan procedure. The primary outcome of interest was EFF, defined as death, Fontan takedown, or listing for heart transplantation prior to hospital discharge or within 30 postoperative days. Our study reported the incidence of EFF of 9.66% (n = 14: thirteen deaths, and one Fontan takedown). In the univariate analysis for pre-operative data, the anatomical diagnosis of unbalanced atrioventricular (AV) septal defect, situs inversus form, AV valve regurgitation, large aorta-pulmonary circulation in Doppler echocardiography, elevated pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance were significantly associated with EFF. At the Fontan, four risk factors influencing EFF included pulmonary artery reconstruction, AV valve repair, bleeding, and elevated PAP. Post-operative edema was also significantly associated with EFF. A final reduced model with multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated preoperative elevated PAP, AV valve repair at Fontan, and postoperative elevated PAP were independent predictors for EFF. In conclusion, EFF is relatively high in our series, and is associated with significant mortality. Patients with a single ventricle physiology undergoing preoperative elevated PAP, AV valve repair at Fontan, and postoperative elevated PAP were identified as independent risk factors to predict EFF.
Organisms exposed to endocrine disruptors in early life can show altered phenotype later in adulthood. Although the mechanisms underlying these long-term effects remain poorly understood, an increasing body of evidence points toward the potential role of epigenetic processes. In the present study, we exposed hatchlings of an isogenic lineage of the self-fertilizing fish mangrove rivulus for 28 days to 4 and 120 ng/L of 17-α-ethinylestradiol. After a recovery period of 140 days, reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) was performed on the liver in order to assess the hepatic genome-wide methylation landscape. Across all treatment comparisons, a total of 146 differentially methylated fragments (DMFs) were reported, mostly for the group exposed to 4 ng/L, suggesting a non-monotonic effect of EE2 exposure. Gene ontology analysis revealed networks involved in lipid metabolism, cellular processes, connective tissue function, molecular transport and inflammation. The highest effect was reported for nipped-B-like protein B (NIPBL) promoter region after exposure to 4 ng/L EE2 (+ 21.9%), suggesting that NIPBL could be an important regulator for long-term effects of EE2. Our results also suggest a significant role of DNA methylation in intergenic regions and potentially in transposable elements. These results support the ability of early exposure to endocrine disruptors of inducing epigenetic alterations during adulthood, providing plausible mechanistic explanations for long-term phenotypic alteration. Additionally, this work demonstrates the usefulness of isogenic lineages of the self-fertilizing mangrove rivulus to better understand the biological significance of long-term alterations of DNA methylation by diminishing the confounding factor of genetic variability.
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous pathology. There are subgroups with different molecular characteristics, and they must be identified to direct the therapy and to have a clear prognosis. HER2/neu (human epidermal growth receptor factor 2/neuro glioblastoma derived oncogene homolog) receptor overexpression is a characteristic that must be evaluated in each population. We apply the monoclonal antibody technique in the indigenous population of Peru, we also correlate the presence of the receptor with global survival. It’s an experimental, prospective and analytical study. Twenty three samples were evaluated, obtained from patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast. The HER2/neu expression was determined by immunohistochemical technique (monoclonal antibodies). The results were verified 10 cases were positive for overexpression (43.47%). The negative cases were 13 (56.52%). The overall survival at 3 years was 69.90% for the Her2/neu positive and 85.00% for negative, showed statistically significant differences (p=0.017). Finally, it was feasible to apply the monoclonal antibody technique and to statistically correlate HER2/neu overexpression with TNM clinical stage, predicting less survival when present. Applying an immunohistochemical technique is feasible in native Peruvian women. The main benefit is to apply biological therapy with monoclonal antibodies, according to their molecular profile.
The optimal growth, maturation and function of bioengineered tissues are mediated by both biochemical and physical cues. We here describe a 3D biomimetic environment directing stem cells towards a chondrogenic phenotype. This system comprises a collagen hydrogel and poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid microcarriers (PLGA-MCs) engineered to protect, carry and release a human Transforming Growth Factor b1 (hTFGb1) payload. PLGA-MCs were prepared using supercritical emulsion extraction technology and integrated into a collagen hydrogel co-seeded with human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hBM-MSCs). Testing different concentrations of hTFGb1 supplemented to cell monolayer cultures suggested 10 ng/mL as the most appropriate concentration to promote upregulation of SRY-Related HMG-BOXGene 9 (4-fold) and collagen type II (2-fold) specific markers, at Day 16. A similar growth factor concentration was delivered within the 3D bioengineered environment cultured in a dynamic via a custom perfusion bioreactor. A chondrogenic commitment was obtained as indicated by upregulation of collagen type II (5-fold) and downregulation of collagen types I and III (both 0.1-fold) at Day 16. Histological analysis confirmed the remodeling of the synthetic extracellular matrix in where an enhanced mass exchange was described by FEM analysis of fluid-dynamics and related nutrient mass transfer within the 3D construct. This study supports the use of 3D bioengineered scaffolds cultured in a dynamic environment as a suitable tissue engineered model to study chondrogenic differentiation in vitro and opens perspectives for an injectable collagen-based advanced therapy system.
Rationale: The optimal duration of antibiotic treatment for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not well established. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of reducing the duration of antibiotic treatment on long-term prognosis in patients hospitalized with CAP. Methods: This was a multicenter study assessing complications developed during one year of patients previously hospitalized with CAP who had been included in a randomized clinical trial concerning the duration of antibiotic treatment. Mortality at 90 days, at 180 days and at 1 year were analyzed, as well as new admissions and cardiovascular complications. A subanalysis was carried out in one of the hospitals by measuring C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and proadrenomedullin (proADM) at admission, at day 5 and at day 30. Results: A total of 312 patients were included, 150 in the control group and 162 in the intervention group. 90 day, 180 day and 1-year mortality in the per-protocol analysis were 8 (2.57%), 10 (3.22%) and 14 (4.50%), respectively. There were no significant differences between both groups in terms of 1-year mortality (p=0.94), new admissions (p= 0.84) or cardiovascular events (p=0.33). No differences were observed between biomarker level differences from day 5 to day 30 (CRP p=0.29; PCT p=0.44; proADM p=0.52). Conclusions: Reducing antibiotic treatment in hospitalized patients with CAP based on clinical stability criteria is safe, without leading to a greater number of long-term complications.
Presented is a 62-year-old woman with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the cecum with an ulcerative right breast metastasis. Although extramammary metastases to the breast are rare and difficult to diagnose, our multidisciplinary workup utilizing clinical history, radiographic, and pathologic findings allowed for accurate identification of tumor origin.