DNA barcoding identification needs a good characterization of intra-specific genetic divergence to establish the limits between species. Yet, the number of barcodes per species is many times low and geographically restricted. A poor coverage of the species distribution range may hamper identification, especially when undersampled areas host genetically distinct lineages. If so, the genetic distance between some query sequences and reference barcodes may exceed the maximum intra-specific threshold for unequivocal species assignation. Taking a group of Quercus herbivores (moths) in Europe as model system, we found that the number of DNA barcodes from southern Europe is proportionally very low in the Barcoding of Life Data Systems (BOLD). This geographical bias complicates the identification of southern query sequences, due to their high intra-specific genetic distance with respect to barcodes from higher latitudes. Pairwise intra-specific genetic divergence increased along with spatial distance, but was higher when at least one of the sampling sites was in southern Europe. Accordingly, GMYC (General Mixed Yule Coalescent) single threshold model retrieved clusters constituted exclusively by Iberian haplotypes, some of which could correspond to cryptic species. The number of putative species retrieved was more reliable than that of multiple threshold GMYC but very similar to results from ABGD and jMOTU. Our results support GMYC as a key resource for species delimitation within poorly inventoried biogeographic regions in Europe, where historical factors (e.g. glaciations) have promoted genetic diversity and singularity. Future European DNA barcoding initiatives should be preferentially performed along latitudinal gradients, with special focus on southern peninsulas.
In the paper, we consider the local-in-time and the global-in-time infinity-ion-mass convergence of bipolar Euler-Maxwell systems by setting the mass of an electron me=1 and letting the mass of an ion mi→∞. We use the method of asymptotic expansions to handle the local-in-time convergence problem and find that the limiting process from bipolar models to unipolar models is actually decoupling, but not the vanishing of equations for the corresponding the other particle. Moreover, when the initial data is sufficiently close to the constant equilibrium state, we establish the global-in-time infinity-ion-mass convergence.
1. The abundance of UV-B absorbing compounds (for example p-Coumaric acid, pCA) within pollen-grain sporopollenin has been proposed as a proxy for reconstructing past changes in surface solar radiation, but drivers of the variation of these compounds in pollen grains remains poorly understood. 2. One important consideration is that the physiological response that results in the production and timing of pCA in pollen remains poorly understood. This calls for studies that explicitly tests the temporal resolution and plasticity of the response of pCA in pollen under field conditions. 3. To address this, we conducted two parallel experiments. First, we measured pCA in four Pinus spp. from Geneva in two consecutive years to investigate the impact of natural variation in ambient solar radiation, and differences in responses between species. Second, we covered pollen cones on Pinus sylvestris trees in Bergen with 90% shading cloth one month before dehiscence and compared the amount of pCA in pollen from shaded and sun-exposed cones from the same tree. 4. Between years, in Geneva, Pinus spp. produced 31% more pCA in 2014 than in 2013, with higher levels of solar radiation also observed in 2014. pCA content also showed strong species-level variation, largely reflecting differences in pollen size between species. Experimentally shaded Pinus sylvestris pollen produced 21% less pCA than fully exposed pollen. 5. Our work demonstrates a plastic response in the production of UV absorbing compounds (pCA) to inter-annual and experimentally induced variation in ambient solar radiation in Pinus spp. pollen. This supports pCA as a highly responsive proxy for early-season solar radiation. We also find strong species-level variation in pCA content in pine pollen, likely related to pollen grain size, which should be accounted for in reconstructions from sites with multiple Pinus species present.
Objective: To compare long term efficacy and safety of an innovative single incision sling (SIS) with the inside-out trans-obturator sling (TOT) in the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Design: randomized controlled trial. Setting: single tertiary referral urogynecology center. Population: women with pure urodynamic SUI. Methods: randomized to either an SIS or TOT and followed-up for four years. Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcomes were objective cures defined with a negative cough stress test and subjective cure reported via patient’s satisfaction scale. Secondary outcomes involved surgery complications including re-operations, postoperative de-novo urgency, and impact on patient quality of life. Results: The objective (86.4% vs. 83.1%; 95% CI 0.30-2.02; p=0.635) and subjective cure rates (83.3% vs. 80.0%; 95% CI 0.33-1.94; p=0.657) were similar with the SIS and TOT groups. Both procedures were associated with low complication rates. Repeated surgery rates owing to recurrent SUI were 7.6% in SIS and 6.3% in TOT groups, respectively. Overall mesh exposure rate was 2.3% for both groups. Incidence of de-novo urgency didn’t vary between TOT and SIS patients. Both groups registered a significant quality of life improvement. Conclusions: Following long term follow-up, anti-incontinence SIS surgery proved non-inferior to inside-out TOT procedure in terms of objective and subjective cure rates. Funding: supported by Czech Republic Ministry of Health, No. FNBr65269705 Keywords: Stress urinary incontinence; mid-urethral sling; single incision sling; efficacy; patient-reported outcomes; randomized controlled trial Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02506309
The purpose of this paper is to study the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problem which is a simplified model to describe high frequency and small displacement oscillation of elastic structure in fluids. The elastic structure displacement is modeled by a fourth order nonlinear hyperbolic square equations, the motion of fluid is modeled by the time-dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. we prove the existence of at least one weak solutions (global in time) to this problem by compactness method. The result both holds for two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases.
An enhanced analytical technique for nonlinear oscillators having a harmonic restoring force is proposed. The approach is passed on the change of the auxiliary operator by another suitable one leads to obtain a periodic solution. The fundamental idea of the new approach is based on obtaining an alternative equation free of the harmonic restoring forces. This method is a modification of the homotopy perturbation method. The approach allows not only an actual periodic solution, but also the frequency of the problem as a function of the amplitude of oscillation. Three nonlinear oscillators including restoring force, the simple pendulum motion, the cubic Duffing oscillator, the Sine-Gordon equation are offered to clarify the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed technique. This approach allows an effective mathematical approach to noise and uncertain properties of nonlinear vibrations arising in physics and engineering.
Abstract Objective To evaluate the clinical diagnostic validity of carbon nanoparticle suspension (CNS) in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for assessing lymphatic spread of early-stage cervical cancer. Design A prospective study. Setting and population 356 cases. Methods We enrolled 356 stage Ia2-IIa2 cervical cancer patients to undergo SLNB using CNS followed by systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy. All lymph node specimens were assessed using conventional histopathologic ± pathologic ultrastaging analyses. Main outcome measures SLN detection rate (DR), clinical diagnostic validity, and various related factors were analysed. Results CNS identified 1456 SLNs in 325 patients. The overall SLN DR was 91.29%. A significantly higher DR was found for patients with tumours <20 mm (97.75% vs. 71.91%; p = 0.000). Two patients had false-negative results, accounting for 0.615% of patients who had successful SLN detection. SLNB with CNS had sensitivity of 92.86%, false-negative rate (FNR) of 7.14%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.29%. Importantly, sensitivity (100%), NPV (100%), and FNR (0%) were improved when testing the subgroup of patients with tumours <20 mm (267 cases). There were no observed differences in DR based on pathologic type or grade, stage, depth of stromal invasion, surgical approach, menopausal status, or prior treatment with chemotherapy (p > 0.05). Conclusions SLNB with CNS results in favourable DR, sensitivity, and NPV for women with early-stage cervical cancer with small tumour sizes. SLNB with CNS is safe, feasible, and relatively effective for guiding precise surgical treatment of early-stage cervical cancer. Keywords SLNB, CNS, early-stage cervical cancer
Accurate and testable species delimitation hypotheses are essential for measuring, surveying and managing biodiversity. Today, taxonomists often rely on mitochondrial DNA barcoding to complement morphological species delimitations. Although COI barcoding has largely proven successful in assisting identifications for most animal taxa, there are nevertheless numerous cases where mitochondrial barcodes do not necessarily reflect the species history. For instance, what is regarded as one single species can be associated with two distinct DNA barcodes, which can point either to cryptic diversity or to deep within-species mitochondrial divergences with no reproductive isolation. In contrast, two or more species can share barcodes, for instance due to mitochondrial introgression. These intrinsic limitations of mitochondrial DNA barcoding can only be addressed with nuclear genomic markers, which are expensive, labour intensive, poorly repeatable, and often require high-quality DNA. To overcome these limitations, we examined the use of ultraconserved nuclear genetic elements (UCEs) as a quick and robust genomic approach to address such problematic cases of species delimitation. This genomic method was assessed using six different bee species complexes suspected to harbour cryptic diversity, mitochondrial introgression, or mitochondrial paraphyly. The sequencing of UCEs recovered between 686 and 1860 homologous nuclear loci and provided explicit species delimitation hypotheses in all investigated species complexes. These results provide strong evidence for the suitability of UCEs as a fast method for species delimitation even in recently diverged lineages. Furthermore, this study provided the first conclusive evidence for both mitochondrial introgression among distinct species, and mitochondrial paraphyly within a single bee species.
The prediction of future land cover changes is an important step in proper planning and management of watersheds. Various methods exist for this purpose. In this study, land cover changes were investigated in the Hable-Rud River basin in Iran, an arid and semi-arid region, using remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). First, a supervised classification technique was applied to Landsat images acquired for 1986, 2000 and 2017 using the maximum likelihood method. Then, using pixel-by-pixel change detection, the land cover changes were predicted for 2017 and 2040 using a Cellular Automata (CA)-Markov model. The descriptive variables used included slope, aspect, elevation, and calculated distances from various land features such as rivers, roads, industrial areas, residential areas, saline land, and land in agricultural production. The predictions for 2017 were validated using the derived map from a Landsat image of 2017 with a resulting standard Kappa index of 0.74. According to the prediction results for 2040, the areas of rangeland and saline land will increase by approximately 6.5% and 2%, respectively, whereas the areas of bare land and agricultural land will decrease by approximately 6% and 2%, respectively. Moreover, the analysis of historical records since 1986 showed that the annual streamflow and precipitation have reduced by almost 44% and 29%, respectively. The reductions, particularly to streamflow, can be attributed largely to agriculture expansion, rapid population growth, and industrial developments. The analysis of the results indicates a need for more effective design, planning, and development of land cover policies for ecosystem protection.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH) is developing country facing extensive land degradation. As a post-conflict society with underlying poor socio-economic conditions, the value of land and its degradation status are not perceived to be an important problem neither a priority to address. BIH currently exists as a decentralized state, where land and land resources are under exclusive jurisdiction of two entities and one district, rather than state-level legislation. Complex land related administration between entities functioning independently from each other, and thus not sinchronized, leads to frequent political conflicts about land property, and limited data exchange which may exacerbate current land degradation. This paper investigates (i) the institutional setting and policy framework related to land, discussing the effectiveness and limitations of the current policies in this post-conflict society; (ii) stakeholders’ perception of land degradation under such complex institutional and policy structures; and (iii) the current state of land degradation, with a focus on soil erosion as one of the most important indicators in BIH. Communication and cooperation are major challenges for sustainable land management in post conflict societies. The existence of a policy framework is important, but not sufficient if implementation is weak and the perception of decision makers differs. Limited data on the impact of 1992 War on soil and land status represents an additional challenge to combat land degradation. Reliable national data on land degradation are crucial for assessment and development of strategic and policy frameworks devoted to those issues and to raise awareness on how to foster their implementation.
The host-pathogen combinations - Malus domestica (apple)/´Candidatus Phytoplasma mali´, Prunus persica (peach)/‘Ca. P. prunorum´ and Pyrus communis (pear)/‘Ca. P. pyri´ show different course of diseases although the phytoplasma strains belong to the same 16SrX group. While infected apple trees can survive for decades, peach and pear trees die within some weeks to few years period. So far, in these phytoplasma-plant interactions neither morphological nor physiological differences have been studied in the hosts. Phytoplasma-induced morphological changes of the vascular system as well as physiological changes of the phloem sap and leaf phytohormones were analysed and compared with non-infected plants. Unlike peach and pear, infected apple trees showed substantial reductions in leaf and vascular morphology, causing negative effects on phloem mass flow. In contrast, in pear mass flow and physicochemical characteristics of phloem sap increased. No changes in phytohormone levels were detected in pear but in apple and peach trees, where defence- and stress-related phytohormones increased. If compared with peach and pear trees, the data from apple suggest that the long-lasting morphological adaptations in the vascular system, which likely cause reduced sap flow, triggers the ability of apple trees to survive phytoplasma infection. Some phytohormone-mediated defences might support the tolerance.
Recently, a novel type of abiotic stress caused by a prolongation of the light period - coined photoperiod stress - has been described in Arabidopsis. During the night after the prolongation of the light period, stress and cell death marker genes are induced. The next day, strongly stressed plants display a reduced photosynthetic efficiency and leaf cells eventually enter programmed cell death. The phytohormone cytokinin (CK) acts as a negative regulator of this photoperiod stress syndrome. In this study, we show that Arabidopsis wild-type plants increase the CK concentration in response to photoperiod stress. Analysis of cytokinin synthesis and transport mutants revealed that root-derived trans-zeatin (tZ)-type CKs protect against photoperiod stress. The CK signaling proteins ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE PHOSPHOTRANSFER PROTEIN 2 (AHP2), AHP3 and AHP5 and transcription factors ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR 2 (ARR2), ARR10 and ARR12 are required for the protective activity of CK. Analysis of higher order B-type arr mutants suggested that a complex regulatory circuit exists in which the loss of ARR10 or ARR12 can rescue the arr2 phenotype. Together the results revealed the role of root-derived CK acting in the shoot through the two-component signaling system to protect from the negative consequences of strong photoperiod stress.
Sarcophaga peregrina is usually considered to be of great ecological, medical and forensic significance, and has the biological characteristics such as the ovoviviparous reproductive pattern and adaptation to feed on carrion. However, the underlying mechanisms still remain unsolved by lack of high-quality genome. Here we present de novo–assembled genome at chromosome-scale for S. peregrina. The final assembled genome was 560.31 Mb with contig N50 of 3.84 Mb. Hi-C scaffolding reliably anchored six pseudochromosomes, accounting for 97.76% of the assembled genome. Moreover, 45.70% of repeat elements were identified in the genome. A total of 14,476 protein-coding genes were functionally annotated, accounting for 92.14% of all predicted genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that S. peregrina and S. bullata diverged ~7.14 Mya. Comparative genomic analysis revealed expanded and positively selected genes related to biological features that aid in clarifying its ovoviviparous reproduction and necrophagous habit, such as horionic membrane formation and Dorso-ventral axis formation, lipid metabolism, and olfactory receptor activity. This study provides a valuable genomic resource of S. peregrina, and sheds insight into further revealing the underlying molecular mechanisms of adaptive evolution.
Various characteristics of soybeans play important roles in the soybean oil quality. In this study, soybean chemical traits and ten characteristic parameters of soybean oil quality were evaluated for 58 varieties to determine the relationship between soybean chemical traits and the soybean oil quality characteristics by correlation analysis. After 7 of 58 soybean oil variety products were set as outliers by the Box-plot method, an evaluation model for the overall soybean oil quality was established based on ten parameters. Cluster analysis was used to classify 51 soybean oil varieties into three quality grades based on the oil quality evaluation model. A prediction model for the quality of the soybean oil based on the chemical traits of soybeans was constructed by stepwise regression. The relative errors between the actual values and the predicted values of the validation varieties were less than 10%. This study suggested that the total oil, daidzin, total phenolic, stearic acid, linolenic acid and ɑ-tocopherol contents may be useful for predicting the quality of soybean oil. Therefore, our study provides a valuable method to evaluate the quality of soybean oil products and important information for generating soybean varieties for soybean oil processing.
The Plumbaginaceae (non-core Caryophyllales) is a family well known for species adapted to a wide range of arid and saline habitats. Of its salt-tolerant species, at least 45 are in the genus Limonium; two in each of Aegialitis, Limoniastum and Myriolimon, and one each in Psylliostachys, Armeria, Ceratostigma, Goniolimon and Plumbago. All the halophytic members of the family have salt glands and salt glands are also common in the closely related Tamaricaceae and Frankeniaceae. The halophytic species of the three families can secrete a range of ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, HCO3-, SO42) and other elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn). Salt glands are, however, absent in salt-tolerant members of the sister family Polygonaceae. We describe the structure of the salt glands in the three families and consider whether glands might have arisen as a means to avoid the toxicity of Na+ and/or Cl- or to regulate Ca2+ concentrations with the leaves. We conclude that the establishment of lineages with salt glands took place after the split between the Polygonaceae and its sister group the Plumbaginaceae.
Etherification mechanism of 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-bis (hydroxymethyl) imidazolidin-2-one (DMDHEU) with primary alcohols in acidic and parched condition were investigated by using density functional theory combined with comparision and reference to results of experiment and spectral analysis. Geometry and energy of reactants, products, actived complexes and carbocation intermediate were optimized at B3LYP/6-311g(d,p) level. Energy level diagram is compatible with type of cation – molecule reaction. Reactants and products form actived complexes with H+ and water, in this state H+ is occupied by both alcohol and water or ether and water. This state has lower energy level compared to both of the following cases: H+ is only occupied by water; and H+ is only occupied by the product or reactant. Computational results indicate that the etherification reaction follows unimolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN1) mechanism; substituent group –R in primary alcohol R-CH2OH (-R = -H, -CH3, -CH2CH3, -Vinyl, -CH2NHCH3, -CH2OCH3, -CH2Cl) only affect to energy barrier of step releasing H3O+ Ec but no effect to energy barrier of activation step Ea = 12.8 kcal/mol; value of Ec is much higher than value of Ea which were verified and confirmed through experiment results.