Maize and teosintes are excellent systems for study of population and ecological genomics, as well as teosintes provide excellent germplasm resources for forage maize breeding. However, genetic relationship, evolution, hybridization and introgression among the genus Zea species have not been completely resolved and effective methods for Zea species classification and identification are scarce. In current study, nuclear (ITS), mitochondrial DNA (atp6, cob and nad1) and chloroplast DNA sequences (matK, psbA-trnH and rbcL) were used to explore as a simple and efficient DNA barcode for identification and genetic study of the Zea species. Phylogenetic incongruence between nuclear and cytoplasmic sequences detected in present study. The lowest divergence value from pairwise comparisons were found between Z. mexicana and Z. parviglumis based on combined six cytoplasmic sequences and Z. mexicana and maize showed lowest divergence value based on ITS sequences. It is suggested that single-gene data sets and combined data sets of six cytoplasmic sequences failed to identify and classify every species at inter-species level, however, the combined data set containing ITS and atp6 can identify and classify Zea species perfectly. Moreover, the tetraploid Z. perennis was confirmed an autotetraploid of diploid Z. diploperennis reflecting from phylogenetic tree based on combined six cytoplasmic sequences.
Norway spruce is a conifer storing large amounts of terpenoids in resin ducts of various tissues. Parts of the terpenoids stored in needles can be emitted together with de novo synthesized terpenoids. Since previous studies provided hints on xylem transported terpenoids as a third emission source, we tested if terpenoids are transported in xylem sap of Norway spruce. We further aimed at understanding if they might contribute to terpenoid emission from needles. We determined terpenoid content and composition in xylem sap, needles, bark, wood and roots of field grown trees, as well as terpenoid emissions from needles. We found considerable amounts of terpenoids – mainly oxygenated compounds - in xylem sap. The terpenoid concentration in xylem sap was relatively low compared to the content in other tissues where terpenoids are stored in resin ducts. Importantly, the terpenoid composition in the xylem sap greatly differed from the composition in wood, bark or roots suggesting that an internal transport of terpenoids takes place at the sites of xylem loading. Our work gives hints that plant internal transport of terpenoids exists within conifers; studies on their functions should be a focus of future research.
Abstract Background and Purpose: The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has been spread out since December 2019 from China to 29 countries. No effective treatment is currently available, although the combination regimen of the antiretroviral drugs– lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), with other antiviral drugs have been using, but the evidences are limited. A recent in vitro study showed that chloroquine could inhibit COVID-19 to cells, and enhance antiviral efficacy. This study aimed to predict the optimal dose regimens of LPV/r, and chloroquine in combination as a potential treatment of COVID-19 infection, using the physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling. Experimental approach: The whole PBPK models were constructed. The predicted plasma drug concentrations were compared with the published clinical data. The validated models were used to predict optimal dosage regimens of LPV/r, and chloroquine co-administration. The optimal dose regimen was determined based on the efficacy, and toxicity reported in the published data. Key Results: The average errors of the predicted values were within 30% of the observed data. The proposed optimal dosage regimen is the once-daily dose of 800/200 mg LPV/r co-administered with chloroquine at a loading dose of 1,000 mg, followed by twice-daily dose of 500 mg for 8 doses on the second day, and the twice-daily dose of 400 mg for 18 doses. Conclusion and Implications: PBPK modelling successfully predicted pharmacokinetic profiles within an acceptable range of errors. The study provides a focus for clinical studies to confirm the efficacy of the proposed dosage regimen as a novel treatment for COVID-19 infection.
The objectives of this study are to test innovations for the farms diagnosis, to locate erosion and to correct them with changes in the way of soil management, to aiming transforming Rio do Peixe Watershed properties that were degraded, rehabilitating them, promoting conservationist agriculture whit evaluating the results through remote sensing and water quality indicators. Secretariat of Agriculture of São Paulo State (SA), responsible for applying the Soil Conservation Law, has been carrying out this study for 20 years, working up 772,000 ha, with 19,846 agricultural properties. In 2019, it turned twelve years of inspection/monitoring at the Rio do Peixe Watershed. From 2007 to 2017 14,076 ha were inspected in Vera Cruz, with notification of 94 properties that went from degraded into agricultural companies. In Ocauçu, 82 properties were notified, on 8,125 ha. Besides other tested methodologies, model airplanes and helicopters, in Marília the Innovative CAD Methodology was used, which allowed 52 properties to be inspected on 27,000 ha from 2017 to 2019. There were transformations of degrading agriculture into conservation agriculture on the study carried out at Rio do Peixe Watershed. Property with degraded pasture turned into an agricultural area, with the no-tillage system. Pastures were recovered with the Integrated Crop-Livestock Systems, where the occupancy rate was increased by 31% comparing to the original situation. It is a great work that benefits the Watershed farmers and the population in the region, including improving the water quality that supplies Marília. It is the SA “Caring for the Well-Being of Society”.
We prove the existence and uniqueness of global strong solution to the free boundary problem in one dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes system for the viscous and heat conducting ideal polytropic gas flow, when the viscosity and heat conductivity depend on temperature in power law of Chapman-Enskog and the data is in the neighborhood of some background solution at initial time. We also study the large time behavior of the solution and obtain its decay property.
In this paper, we prove the well-posedness of the solution to the three-dimensional Boussinesq system with nonlinear damping term. Existence, uniqueness and continuous dependence with respect to initial data of the weak solution are proved, under minimum regularity requirement in Sobolev and Lebegue spaces. Energy method, compactness method, and appropriate technical lemmas are used.
Molecular mechanisms and process kinetics of crystallizing concomitant polymorphs remain poorly understood. Solvent-mediated phase transformation is often mistaken as concomitant crystallization, mainly due to the two processes sharing similar kinetic profiles. Herein, we developed a population balance model to simulate a concomitant crystallization process of two polymorphs of tolfenamic acid (TFA). The kinetic modeling aims to better understand concomitant crystallization and help guide form selection of such a molecular system. Crystallization kinetics of ethanolic TFA solutions were uncovered from induction time measurements, as well as seeded and unseeded crystallization experiments. Both experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the stable form I crystallizes concomitantly with the metastable form II. The faster growing form II results in an intermediate decline in the kinetic profile of form I composition in crystallized samples, a characteristic feature of the concomitantly crystallized system. A four-quadrant scheme of attainable polymorph outcome was simulated under various crystallization conditions.
In this paper we investigate the size of a bi-dimensional fragmentation process. A rectangle of dimensions x and y is considered, it is split into four sub-rectangles with some probability that depends on x and y, we iterate until the stop of the process. The total number of the all the obtained rectangles at the end of the process satisfies some equality in distribution which is resolved , using some tools on integral equations, via the contraction method.
Desertification models do not include analyses of rainfall, temporality, field visits and projection scenarios. The objective is to evaluate desertification under levels of vegetation, soil and albedo, construct forecast models and analyze its variability with time and rainfall. Landsat TM was used for NDVI, TGSI and albedo between 2000 and 2008 in dry and rainy periods in Irauçuba Centro Norte (ICN) and in the National Forest of Sobral (FLONA). Desertification levels and indices of 30 pixels were quantified and their means were inputs in the ARIMA model. The results showed vegetation and albedo at different levels of desertification. The medium desertification class of NDVI increased by 18% at ICN and the low desertification class of albedo increased by 3%. TGSI showed the class severe at ICN and FLONA. The AR(3) model indicated reduction in NDVI, while MA(1) for TGSI and albedo showed severe and low level. ARMA(2,1) showed optimistic scenario of recovery for pixels with desertified NDVI and Albedo of FLONA. The AR(3) model for TGSI of FLONA showed a reduction of 0.0006504 in 70 years. Anthropic practices and climate were responsible for the desertification of ICN, while FLONA was shown to be non-desertified, but NDVI and TGSI were affected by the anthropic practices. Therefore, desertification showed different levels at ICN, rainfall and time affected vegetation and albedo at ICN and FLONA. ARMA(2,1) models showed that the prospects of desertification reversal are greater for FLONA.
To protect themselves from herbivore attacks, especially during early developmental stages, plants produce volatiles possessing various ecological and physiological functions. Here, we identified three genes cloned from Lavandula angustifolia. These genes, designated as LaTPS7, LaTPS8, and LaCYP71D582, were hypothesized to be active in plant defense during early developmental stages. The in-vitro assays showed LaTPS7 produced eight compounds including camphene, myrcene, limonene etc. and LaTPS8 catalyzed nine volatiles from α-pinene, sylvestrene to fenchol etc. using geranyl diphosphate (GPP) and nerolidyl diphosphate (NPP) as substrate separately. However, LaTPS7 present in plastids only, synthesized limonene within Nicotiana benthamiana. Limonene was then converted into carveol by LaCYP71D582 present in the endoplasmic reticulum. LaTPS8, also located in plastids, synthesized α-pinene and sylvestrene. Odour response of aphids (Myzus persicae) and ladybugs (Harmonia axyridis) showed that volatiles from transgenic tobacco leaves repelled aphids and attracted ladybugs. LaTPS7 promoter GUS stain assay in Arabidopsis thaliana showed that LaTPS7 displayed a wound-induced expression in leaves. Together, our findings show that these compounds and gene-expression pattern played important roles in protecting plants during vulnerable stages. More practically, these plant tactics can be exploited in agriculture to decrease the use of insecticides, thereby contributing to improved human and environmental health.
Persian oak decline is a syndrome within the oak decline complex in Iran. Profuse stem bleed-ing and larval galleries of the native buprestid, Agrilus hastulifer characterize the disease. A systematic study comparing healthy with diseased trees was undertaken. This work reports the result of isolations from healthy trees and diseased tissue in affected trees, at eight sites in Iran. Culturable bacterial communities were identified using the 16S rDNA sequencing. A significantly higher proportion of symptomatic tissue pieces from diseased trees (Disease In-dex=5) yielded bacterial growth than other disease indexes (83.78%). Significantly higher yields were also obtained from bulk and rhizosphere compared with the root, leaf, and stem. Overall bacterial communities compositions varied at each site, but significant similarities were evident in diseased tissues at all sites. Enterobacteriaceae were dominated in diseased trees whereas Bacilluceae and Moraxellaceae were remarkable more abundant in healthy trees. Sig-nificant associations occurred between diseased tissues and certain bacterial species, implying that the cause of tissue necrosis was not due to random microbiota. Brenneria goodwinii, Ser-ratia marecescence, and Dickeya chrysanthemi were key species consistently isolated from diseased tissue; Campylobacter jejuni and an un-named Clostridium taxon were also frequent-ly isolated from both healthy and diseased trees. It was concluded that there was a shift in the cultivatable bacterial microbiome of diseased trees, with Enterobacteriaceae strongly repre-sented in symptomatic but not healthy tissues. No single dominated species was isolated from diseased tissues, so tissue degradation in oak likely have a polymicrobial cause.
Photosynthate translocation from leaves to fruits is an important determinant of crop yield and quality. In protected cultivation, environmental control based on photosynthate translocation is indicative for realising high-yield and high-quality production. However, there are few studies on the environmental response of photosynthate translocation. In this study, we focused on light intensity as a key environmental factor to steer translocation. We fed 11CO2 to a leaf of strawberry plant (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) and analysed real-time dynamics in 11C-labeled photosynthate translocation from a 11CO2-fed leaf to individual fruits on an inflorescence of intact plants by using positron emission tomography (PET) under different light intensities (50, 100, 200 and 400 μmol m-2 s-1). A poor relationship was obtained between 11C-photosynthate translocation and light intensity according to the results that 11C-photosynthate translocation rates into the fruits was highest under the light intensity of 100 μmol m-2 s-1 followed by those of 200, 400 and 50 μmol m-2 s-1. On the other hand, there was a strong negative correlation between transpiration rate of the 11C-fed leaf and 11C-photosynthate translocation rate. These novel findings indicate that transpiration, which controls the leaf moisture status, is one of the main drivers for photosynthate translocation towards fruits.
We have recently described a non-chromatographic, ligand-free approach for antibody (Ab) purification based on specially designed: [Tween-20:bathophenanthroline:Fe2+] aggregates. To assess the potential generality of this approach, a variety of detergents belonging to four nonionic detergent families (Tween, Brij, Triton and Pluronic) have now been studied. All surfactant aggregates lead to high purity of the recovered Abs (>95%, by gel densitometry). Good overall Ab recovery yields were observed with: Tween-20 (80-83%), Brij-O20 (85-87%) and Triton X-100 (87-90%), while Pluronic F-127 was less efficient (42-53%). Of additional importance is the finding that the process can depend on filtration (rather than centrifugation), thereby allowing a continuous purification mode that leads to the recovery of monomeric IgG’s (by DLS) and preservation of Ab specificity (by ELISA). The amphiphilic chelator, bathophenanthroline (batho) is recycled almost quantitatively (95%) by crystallization. Good IgG recovery yields (~80%) are also observed when Ab concentrations are increased from 1 mg/ml to 3-5 mg/mL. Potential advantages of the purification platform for industrial downstream processing of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), are discussed.
In the current research chor, we are reporting the synthesis of 2-amino-6-methylpyrimidin-4-yl benzenesulfonate (AMPBS) and 2,6-diaminopyrimidin-4-yl benzenesulfonate (DAPBS) via O-benzenesulfonylation of 2-amino-6-methylpyrimidin-4-ol 1 and 2,6-diaminopyrimidin-4-ol 2 respectively. The structures of the synthesized compounds were characterized unambiguously by single crystal analysis (SC-XRD).Hirshfeld surface study showed that C-H…O, C-H…N and especially C-H…C hydrogen bond interactions are the key contributors to the intermolecular stabilisation in the crystal. The quantum chemical understanding about optimized geometry, natural bond orbitals (NBOs), frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) and nonlinear optical (NLO) analysis for AMPBS and DAPBS were obtained by applying density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP level and 6-311G(d,p) basis set. Time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT)/ B3LYP/ 6-311G(d,p) level were employed to determine the photo physical properties of compounds. As a whole, the simulated results were found to have an excellent concurrence to the experimental results. The charge transfer phenomenon entitled compounds was determined by FMOs. Global reactivity parameters were obtained by using HOMO–LUMO energies of compounds. Overall, the computational results of AMPBS and DAPBS have outstanding agreement to experimental data. The computational study also showed that the title compounds have remarkable NLO properties.
Background and Purpose: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is implicated in the impairment of memory function. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) is involved in modulating synaptic and neuronal formation. Experimental Approach: The aim of this study is to examined the impacts of FGF2 on MHE pathology. Our study addressed whether FGF2 could trigger neuregulin 1 (NRG1) release to ameliorate synaptic impairment in MHE rats and in primary cultured neurons. Key Results: The results showed the decreased FGF2 expression in MHE brains. After treatment with FGF2, secreted neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and ErbB4 were increased, and the interaction of the 2 proteins was enhanced. Additionally, treatment with FGF2 or NRG1 induced synaptic formation, with increase in the activity of synapse and the density of dendritic spine, through Sirt1. NRG1 signaling was prevented by administration of FGF2, which acts through the FGFR1 in MHE rats. Finally, intracerebroventricular injection with FGF2 or NRG1 mitigated the impairment of synaptogenesis. Conclusions and Implications: The data suggest that FGF2 may be a promising latent therapeutic reagent for MHE pathogenesis.
Light heterogeneity can lead to the heterogeneity of morphological structure and physiological functions in different leaves. However, little attention has been paid to the effect of nonuniform illumination on morphological structure and photosynthetic performance between the two symmetrical portions along the main vein within individual leaves. This experiment was carried out by the method of combining site determination in the field and shading simulation in the phytotron using pima cotton which have cupping leaves. In the field, maximum net photosynthetic rate, leaf area, and leaf mass per area were positively correlated with daily photo irradiance (DPI), while the chlorophyll content related negatively with DPI. These results indicated that the heterogeneity of photosynthetic characteristics between two sides of along the main vein within individual leaves were related with its intercepted light energy. Further, the shading simulation experiments also verified this conclusion. Interestingly, compared to the both ambient leaves and individual shading leaves, the photosynthetic characteristics of both ambient leaves and shading leaves in shading half leaves were changed. Thus, we also discussed that the development of the photosynthetic characteristics in one side of the main vein in a leaf was systematically regulated by adjacent side.
There is not any medicine during the emergency of 2019-nCov has been an outbreak and we have already found antiviral phytomedicine Chinese elderberry will be inhibition of 2019-nCoV.This commentary used to be presented in June of 2013 at the first international symposium for the elderberry, the conference, held in the USA, many scientists were surprised to learn of the 9 native species of elderberry in China. This paper aims to publish our comment on the elderberry, as, since our initial presentation in 2013, no English literature references are present in China. Most Chinese horticulturists and farmers consider the elderberry a wild plant. It is regarded as a plant of little value due to its abundance and ease of harvest. This article contains details of the Sambucus species groups, including the botanical names, Chinese common names, geographic distributions, economic uses and full descriptions of the elderberry. In southwest China, where the climate is mildly warm, there are 2 species of elderberries; one, Sambucus adnata, is termed the “blood-red herb-elderberry” by local residents as the roots, rhizomes, and branches exude red-juice when broken. The second, named S. javanica or S. chinensis, is commonly called the “herb-elderberry”. In northeast China where the climate is cold, there are 7 species of elderberry, however, most scientists recognize only 2 main species: Sambucus. williamsii, commonly called the “woody-elderberry”, and Sambucus sibirica, commonly called the “Siberian woody-elderberry”. The other 5 species of elderberry in northern-east of China.
Abstract Mammals function as ecological engineers. The ecological relevance of mammals, shortage of data and increased human threats make the matter very essential and necessary to evaluate their diversity and current conservation status. Mammals’ diversity and their threats in Faragosa Communal Forest (FCF) areas are poorly surveyed. The study aimed at assessing medium and large-sized mammals of the study area, and their major threats in FCF. Survey of mammals conducted from August to December 2019 in FCF, Gamo zone, Southern Ethiopia. Transect line method using direct and indirect field observations used to collect data on mammals and their threats. A total of 685 individuals were id belonging to twenty-one mammalian species, six orders and thirteen families were observed. Hystrix cristata, Xerus rutilus, Marmota monax, Mellivera capensis, Chlorocebus aethiops, Papio anubis, Colobus guereza, Civettictis civetta, and Lapus hassinicus were among the medium-sized mammals while Tragelaphus imberbis, Redunca redunca, Ourebia ourebi, Sylvicapra grimmia, Phacochoerus aethiopicus, Pontamochoreus larvatus, Hippopothamus amphibus, Orycteropus afer, Crocuta crocuta, Panthera leo, Panthera pardus, and Canis mesomelas were the large mammals of the study area. Papio anubis and Chlorocebus aethiops were the dominant species identified. The abundant order recorded by the number of observations was order Primates (284 individuals) followed by order Artiodactyla (201 individuals) while the least abundant order was Tubulidentata (8 individuals). Among observed 685 mammals, 371 (54.16%) individuals were recorded in dry season while 314 (45.84%) individuals were recorded in wet season and abundance significantly varied between seasons (2 = 40.783; df = 20; < 0.05). The prevailing threatening factors identified were logging of trees for fuelwood and house construction, overgrazing, deforestation, hunting, mining, and invasive alien plants. As the area is rich in mammals and threatened by different factors, urgent conservation action is highly recommended. K E Y W O R D S diversity, Ethiopia, Faragosa forest, mammals, threats