Background: The present study aims to investigate the state of sterilization, disinfection and infection control of dentists during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The study involved 310 dentists, who were asked to fill in a 19-question, multiple-choice survey on sterilization, disinfection and infection control. The survey results were evaluated statistically using chi-square test. Results: An investigation of the changes in working conditions and occupational experience during the pandemic period showed that 86.7% of the physicians who quit are the ones with occupational experience of 0 to 6 years. 89.3% of the physicians who answered “No idea” to the question about sterilization methods consist of physicians with over 20 years of experience, while 7.1% of them are physicians with 6-10 years of experience. Conclusion: Dentistry is the highest risk profession in the COVID-19 pandemic. And dentists need to reduce this risk by utilizing personal protective equipment and adopting the most appropriate disinfection and sterilization measures. Key Words: Disinfection, dentistry, sterilization.
In this paper, an elegant and easy to implement numerical method using matrix mechanics approach is proposed, to solve the time independent Schrodinger equation (TISE) for Morse potential. It is specifically applied to non-homogeneous diatomic molecule HCl to obtain its rotating-vibrator spectrum. While matrix diagonalization technique is utilised for solving TISE, model parameters for Morse potential are optimized using variational Monte-Carlo (VMC) approach by minimizing χ 2 − value. Thus, validation with experimental vibrational frequencies is completely numerical based with no recourse to analytical solutions. The ro-vibrational spectra of HCl molecule obtained using the optimized parameters through VMC have resulted in least χ 2 − value as compared to those determined using best parameters from multiple regression analysis of analytical expressions. Numerical algorithm for solving the Hamiltonian matrix has been implemented utilizing Free Open Source Software (FOSS) Scilab and simulation results are matching well with those obtained using analytical solutions from Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method and asymptotic iteration method (AIM).
Understanding the genetic properties of adaptive trait evolution is a fundamental crux of biological inquiry that links molecular processes to biological diversity. Important uncertainties persist regarding the genetic predictability of adaptive trait change, the role of standing variation, and whether adaptation tends to result in the fixation of favored variants. Here, we use the recurrent evolution of enhanced ethanol resistance in Drosophila melanogaster during this species' worldwide expansion as a promising system to add to our understanding of the genetics of adaptation. We find that elevated ethanol resistance has evolved at least three times in different cooler regions of the species' modern range - not only at high latitude but also in two African high altitude regions - and that ethanol and cold resistance may have a partially shared genetic basis. Applying a bulk segregant mapping framework, we find that the genetic architecture of ethanol resistance evolution differs substantially not only between our three resistant populations, but also between two crosses involving the same European population. We then apply population genetic scans for local adaptation within our quantitative trait locus regions, and we find potential contributions of genes with annotated roles in spindle localization, membrane composition, sterol and alcohol metabolism, and other processes. We also apply simulation-based analyses that confirm the variable genetic basis of ethanol resistance and hint at a moderately polygenic architecture. However, these simulations indicate that larger-scale studies will be needed to more clearly quantify the genetic architecture of adaptive evolution, and to firmly connect trait evolution to specific causative loci.
To study the effect of the invasion of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus on the functional relationship between woody plants and insect communities, the populations of tree species and insect communities were investigative in the Masson pine forests with different infestation durations of B. xylophilus. In this study, the number of Pinus massoniana began to decrease sharply, whereas the total number of other tree species in the arboreal layer increased gradually with the infestation duration of B. xylophilus. The principal component analysis ordination biplot shows that there was a significant change in the spatial distribution of woody plant species in different Masson pine forest stands. Additionally, a total of 7,188 insect specimens was obtained. The insect population showed an upward trend in stand types with the increase of pine wilt disease infection periods, which demonstrated that the insect community had been significantly affected by the invasion of B. xylophilus. The structure of insect functional groups changed from herbivorous (He) > omnivorous (Om) > predatory (Pr) > parasitic (Pa) > detritivorous (De) in the control stand to He > Pa > Om, De > Pr after B. xylophilus infestation in the forests. The results showed that the populations of He, Pa, and De increased after the invasion of B. xylophilus, but the populations of Pr decreased. Moreover, the redundancy analysis ordination bi-plots reflected the complicated functional relationship between woody plant communities and insects after the invasion of B. xylophilus. The present study provides insights into the changes in the community structure of woody plants and insects, as well as the functional relationship between woody plant communities and insect communities after invasion of B. xylophilus.
Dens are places for cavernicolous animals to hibernate, reproduce, and avoid predators and harsh weather conditions, and thus they have a vital impact on their survival. M. himalayana is the main large cavernicolous rodent on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The analysis of den traits and their ecological functions can reveal mechanisms by which marmots have adapted to their environment, which is important for further understanding the ecological significance of this species. From July to August 2019 (warm season), we used unmanned aerial vehicles to fly at low altitudes and slow speeds to locate 131 marmot burrows (45 on shaded slopes, 51 on sunny slopes, and 35 on flat areas) in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We then measured the physical characteristics (den density, entrance size, first tunnel length, volume, orientation and plant characteristics near the den entrance) of these dens on site. The physical parameters of the M. himalayana dens showed that they function to protect the marmots from natural enemies and bad weather, provide good drainage, and maintain a stable microclimate around the entrance. This is a result of the marmot’s adaptation to the harsh environment (cold and humidity) of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
For the treatment of Covid-19 patients with remdesivir, poor renal- and liver function were both exclusion criteria in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and contra-indication for treatment. Also, nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity are reported as adverse events. We retrospectively reviewed renal- and liver functions of covid-19 patients who received remdesivir in the 15 days after treatment initiation. Approximately 20% of the patient population met RCT exclusion criteria. In total, 11% of the patients had a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate larger than 10 ml/min/1.73m2. Also, 25% and 35% had increased alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels, respectively. However, serious adverse events were limited. Therefore, contra-indications based on kidney- and liver function should not be absolute for remdesivir treatment in patients with Covid-19 if these functions are monitored regularly.
Background: Case study of 30 years male having suspending mass found over upper surface of soft palate hanging in nasopharynx. Methods: After evaluation, patient underwent combined approach (Trans-oral + Endoscopic) excision. Results: Histopathological examination concluded possibility of intra-oral lipoma. Conclusion: Palatal mass (lipoma) requires surgical excision post complete evaluation.
Fish bones have a risk of damaging the mucosa when lodged in the pharynx. Fish bones migrated into surrounding tissues is relatively unusual. We present 2 cases of patients who ingested fish bone, which migrated into retropharyngeal space and hypopharynx. All fish bones were removed without complications.
Viral entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) via the spike protein enables endocytosis into host cells using the ACE2 receptor and TMPRSS2. The frequent upper respiratory tract symptoms of COVID-19 and the localization of the virus to the nasopharynx, the most common site of swabbing, indicate that the sinonasal mucosa may play an important role in SARS-CoV2 infection and viral replication. This paper investigates the presence of ACE2 Receptor and TMPRESS2 expression in the primary human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) from Control, CRSsNP, and CRSwNP and maps the expression changes when exposed to Th1, Th2, Th17 associated cytokines. We found that ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression is higher in control HNECs than CRSwNP HNECs, and that both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are downregulated further by Th2 cytokines in CRSwNP HNECs. This indicates an immune dysregulated state of CRSwNP mucosa, which normally contributes to a chronic inflammatory state, might support an altered susceptibility to SARS-CoV2 infection and transmission.
Introduction Multiple contact-based ablation technologies have been developed to allow real-time judgement of lesion effectiveness; local impedance (LI) guided ablation and the role of ultra-high density (UHD) mapping have not yet been evaluated for cavotricuspid isthmus dependent atrial flutter (CTI-AFL). Methods This non-randomised observational study evaluated patients undergoing CTI-AFL ablation using conventional, contact force (CF) and LI guided strategies. Ablation metrics were collected, and in the LI cohort, the use of UHD mapping for breakthrough was evaluated. Results 30 patients were included, 10 in each group. Mean total ablation time was significantly shorter with LI (3.2±1.3min) vs conventional (5.6±2.7min) and CF (5.7±2.0min, p=0.0042). Time from start of ablation to CTI block was numerically shorter with LI (14.2±8.0min) vs conventional and CF (19.7±14.1 and 22.5±19.1min, p=0.4408). There were no differences in the number of lesions required to achieve block, procedural success, complication rates or recurrence. 15/30 patients did not achieve block following first-pass ablation. UHD mapping rapidly identified breakthrough in the 5 LI patients, including epicardial-endocardial breakthrough (EEB) away from the line. Conclusion The use of LI for real-time assessment of lesion formation resulted in significantly less ablation requirement. UHD mapping rapidly identified breakthrough, including EEB, which would likely have been difficult to identify otherwise and possibly require extensive ablation, contributing towards shortening of time to CTI block with LI.
Background and Purpose: Ischemic stroke remains one of the leading causes of death in the population. In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction is an essential part of the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia and is a promising pharmacotherapeutic target. Experimental Approach: the work was performed on male Wistar rats, which were simulated cerebral ischemia by irreversible occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. 4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tret-butyl cinnamic acid (25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally for 3 days after ischemia (daily). On the 4th day of the experiment, the changes of rat’s cognitive functions in the Morris water maze test, cellular respiration processes, the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and citrate synthase activity, the intensity of oxidative stress and apoptosis reactions were assessed. Key Results: it was found that the administration of 4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tret-butyl cinnamic acid at doses of 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg practically equivalently promotes the restoration of aerobic metabolism reactions and the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, decrease of the intensity of oxidative stress reactions and apoptosis, as well as an increase in the activity of citrate synthase. As a result, the restoration of mitochondrial function in the hippocampal cells contributed to the restoration of the animal’s spatial memory. Conclusion and Implications: a study showed that 4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tret-butyl cinnamic acid at doses of 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg has a neuroprotective effect on hippocampal neurons under conditions of permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, realized by restoration of mitochondrial function.
Introduction: The impact of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) on cardiovascular events and mortality is controversial. We investigated the impact of sinus rhythm maintenance on major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events after AF ablation from a Japanese multicenter cohort of AF ablation. Methods and Results: We investigated 2737 consecutive patients (25.6% female, mean age 63.4 ± 10.3 years) who underwent a first catheter ablation for AF from the Atrial Fibrillation registry to Follow the long-teRm Outcomes and use of aNTIcoagulants aftER Ablation (AF Frontier Ablation Registry). The primary endpoint was a composite of stroke, transient ischemic attack, cardiovascular events, and all-cause death. During a mean follow-up of 25.2 months, 2070 (75.6%) patients were free from AF after catheter ablation, and the primary composite endpoint occurred in 122 (4.5%) patients. The AF nonrecurrence group had a significantly lower incidence of the primary endpoint (1.7 per 100 person-years) compared with the AF recurrence group (3.2 per 100 person-years; P = 0.001). The multivariate analysis revealed that freedom from AF (hazard ratio 0.57; 95% confidence interval 0.39–0.83; P = 0.003) was independently associated with the incidence of the composite event.¬¬ Conclusion: In the multicenter cohort of AF ablation, sinus rhythm maintenance after catheter ablation was independently associated with lower rates of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events.
A man with chronic kidney disease (CKD) under hemodialysis was diagnosed with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). He received arsenic trioxide as a single agent and achieved complete molecular remission without severe adverse events. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) can be used safely and effectively for APL with CKD
The dynamic adsorption isotherms of CO2-EGR were measured by using a Intelligent Gravimetric Analysis system.In the beginning stage of CO2 injection, all the injected CO2 enters into the adsorbent and the mole fraction of CH4 (yCH4) keeps 1.0. The CH4 recovery factor (RCH4) increases. The during of this stage (tcd) depends on the selectivity of CO2 over CH4 ( SCO2/CH4). A adsorbent with large SCO2/CH4 has long tCD. When SCO2/CH4 is greater than 1.0, CO2 reduces the fraction of CH4 in the adsorbed phase (xCH4) and more CH4 is driven out. In the second stage,the injected CO2 competes with CH4 for adsorption. The cumulative RCH4 of this stage is much larger than that of the initial stage. However, yCH4 decrease sharply. pCH4 in the whole CO2 injection is always larger than that before CO2 injection, suggesting CH4 desorption results from the displacement by CO2 rather than from pressure depletion.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common atrial arrhythmia but it is not a benign disease. AF is an important risk factor for thromboembolic events, causing significant morbidity and mortality. The left atrial appendage (LAA) plays an important role in thrombus formation but the ideal way to manage the LAA is still debated. The increasing popularity of surgical epicardial ablation and hybrid endo-epicardial ablation approaches, especially in patients with a more advanced diseased substrate, has raised the interest in epicardial LAA management. Minimally invasive treatment options for the LAA offer a unique opportunity to close the LAA with a clip device. This review highlights morphologic, electrophysiologic and surgical aspects of the left atrial appendage with regard to atrial fibrillation surgery, and aims to illustrate the different surgical management strategies.
Abstract An 80-year-old male patient developed exertional dyspnea and bilateral peripheral oedema. Investigations including an echocardiogram, cardiac computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance suggested calcific pericardial thickening encapsulating the heart with associated constriction. This is an interesting case as constriction was associated with a large chylopericardium of unknown cause
In this study our aim was to assess the diversity and distribution of cavity-nesting solitary bees, wasps and the spider-hunting wasps' prey with regards to the influence of landscape context in a study area with relatively low human disturbance. The study took place between May and August 2018 at eight study sites in the hilly-mountainous central part of Romania, where the majority of the landscape is used for extensive farming or forestry. During the processing of the trap nest material, we recorded several parameters regarding the nests of different hymenopteran groups, the spider prey found inside these nests, and also tested the influence of the landscape structure surrounding the sites on both hymenopteran groups and spider prey. The majority of nests was built by the solitary wasp group of Trypoxylon, followed by Dipogon and Eumeninae. Solitary bees were much rarer, with Hylaeus being most common group. The groups showed partially differing size preferences concerning the diameter of the occupied reed stalks. In the nests of Trypoxylon we predominantly found spider prey from the family of Araneidae, followed by representatives from the families of Linyphiidae and Theridiidae. In contrast to Trypoxylon, the wasp group Dipogon preferred spider prey from the family of Thomisidae. Concerning the hymenopteran groups, significant effects of landscape structure were found on the number of both nests and brood cells of Eumeninae and on the number of brood cells of Hylaeus, Osmia and Trypoxylon. We also found that the diversity of Trypoxylon spider prey was significantly positively affected by an increasing proportion of grassland and negatively by an increasing proportion of woodland. Altogether, our study presents several new aspects concerning the diversity and distribution of solitary bees, wasps and the spider-hunting wasps' prey and also the effects of landscape context on these groups.