This study evaluated the effects of antimicrobial addition on the shelf-life of rendered chicken fat. Sodium bisulfate (SBS) and lactic acid (LA), were each added at 0.5% to chicken fat and incubated for 6 weeks at 40°C. Peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (AV) and free fatty acid (FFA) levels were measured at day 0 (D0), 1(D1), 3 (D3), 5 (D5), and 7 (D7), and week 2 (W2), 3 (W3), 4 (W4), 5 (W5), and 6 (W6). The FFA level of untreated-control fat was ~7% and remained consistent throughout the incubation until W6 (~8.5%; (P<0.05). The FFA values in SBS treated fat were constant (range 7.25-8.30%) throughout the incubation; whereas, the LA treated fat peaked at W5 (9.3%, P<0.05). For the control fat, PVs were between 0.56-0.67 meqv/100gm until W1 then declined. For the SBS treated fat, the PVs remained low and like the control with the exception of a slight increase on W4 to 0.38 meqv/100gm, P<0.05). In the LA treated fat PV was greater than the control from W1 and increased to a peak on W5 (2.52 meqv/100gm). The AV of control fat averaged 2.12 at D0 and increased through W2. In control and LA treated fat, the AV values declined slightly thereafter; whereas, SBS treated fat increased (P<0.05) to 10.28 on W5.This study indicates that at antimicrobial effective doses the LA in rendered chicken fat may impact the shelf-life, but SBS had a minimal effect over a period of 6 weeks.
The current work aimed to optimize supported template-free ZSM-5 zeolite membrane preparation by evaluating the effect of two parameters: successive synthesis cycles of the zeolitic film and aging time of the synthesis solution. The zeolitic films were synthesized in α-alumina tubes through secondary hydrothermal treatment. Aging time for the dissolution of silicon and aluminum was 30, 60, 120 or 180 min. For the silicon and aluminum mix, aging time was 60 or 15 min. Hydrothermal synthesis was performed 1, 2 or 4 times. One synthesis cycle was already capable of producing a homogeneous zeolitic film on the support. This finding was corroborated by gas permeation tests, in which the membrane did not show any apparent defects. Aging time had an effect on the type of zeolite formed. Only the aging time conditions of 180 and 60 min and 180 and 15 min prompted the exclusive formation of zeolite ZSM-5.
Soil amendment is one of the most effective method to improve saline-alkali soil. In this paper, we verify the effect of 13 kinds of amendments and its combination on soil pH、metal cations content、exchangeable Na+、exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP)in the lab, and then choose the most 5 effective amendments both applying in both dry and paddy field to evaluate their improvement on soda saline-alkali soil and crop yield. The results showed that AL, AL + Z and AL + ZH treatments could significantly reduce the pH in soil solution and increase the content of metal cations. Z and ZH treatments could adsorb metal cations in soil. Whether in dry or paddy fields, all treatments could reduce the content of exchangeable Na+ in soil, and decrease by 38.62% - 61.33% and 25.24% -71.53%, respectively; All treatments could reduce soil exchangeable sodium percentage, and decrease by 0.14 - 0.22 and 0.14 - 0.41, respectively; AL, AL+Z and AL+ZH treatments could improve soil organic matter content; All treatments could effectively improve the yield of crops, and increase 23.98% - 60.75% and 52.51% - 260.21%, respectively. The effect of AL treatment was the best in dry field and AL + ZH treatment was the best in paddy field of soda saline-alkali soil.
The pump-and-treat methodology represents a common remediation approach to mitigate hydrocarbon contaminations. In a well-studied site contaminated by large volume of jet fuel, continuous monitoring of the water table and floating phase thickness at a widely studied site contaminated by a large volume of jet fuel revealed the phenomenological process governing the effectiveness of the site's active remediation system. The floating phase thickness recorded in the monitored wells broadly varied and was negatively correlated with the water table level. Although the dependency of LNAPL thickness on water table fluctuations is widely recognized, the LNAPL recovery, which is governed by alternating cycles of release and entrapment of LNAPL in pore spaces, has been poorly described. Thus, we present a peculiar case in which the LNAPL recovery is expected only episodically, when water table falls sufficiently. In the period spanning from 2006 to 2008, LNAPL remediation recovered nearly 180 m3 of oil. In later years, the volume of recovered LNAPL declined and ceased between 2010 and 2014, when the water table rose. The conditions observed at the study site are likely common and may have important implications in the management of contaminated sites.
Tubulin beta 8 class VII (TUBB8), a primate oocyte/embryo-specific β-tubulin isotype, is a preferentially analyzed gene in the genetic diagnosis of infertile women. Studies have currently identified 47 variants of this gene. However, the evaluation of its pathogenicity and the resulting phenotypes vary, and this gene requires further study in order to be included in genetic counseling analyses. We have performed a whole exome sequencing (WES) screening of 385 infertile female subjects and 400 controls, identifying 29 TUBB8 variants (of which 23 were novel). These variants may be responsible for female infertility, especially in the case of embryonic arrest, and their identification further expands the variant spectrum of TUBB8. Our findings are the first to report a new phenotype of large polar body in TUBB8 variant patients and determine some recurrent variants that were specific for complete cleavage failure. We have also illustrated some phenotypes of TUBB8 variant patients and recommended using computational modeling approach to assess the pathogenicity of novel TUBB8 variants, particularly for maternally inherited variants. Our studies will contribute in laying the foundation for the genetic counseling of infertile women in the future.
Followed by developing modern medicine, leeches did not have extensive use as before, however, in the late 19th century, they were still used in most countries all over the world. Thus far, leeches were utilized in treating various diseases like skin disorders, arthritis, and cancer. In Egypt, using leeches for treatment dates back to early 1500 BC. A medical leech’s salivary glands involve over 100 bioactive materials and the salivary gland secretion contains bacteriostatic, analgesic, and anti-coagulation influences; with resolving activity, it causes microcirculation disorders elimination, restoring the hurt vascular permeability of organs and tissues, removing hypoxia, decreasing blood pressure, increasing immune system activity, and detoxifying the organism by antioxidant paths. The current work reviews the innovative treatment with medical leech especially proteins in leech saliva with high potential in medicine. The results showed that by the virtue of salivary gland secretions which are proteinaceous enzymes, leech acts on various diseases such as venous congestion in reconstructive and plastic surgery, osteoarthritis, cardiovascular diseases caused by blood coagulation disorders, skin disorders, migraine headache, diabetic foot ulcers, priapism, macroglossia, cancer complications, wounds and many other. To confirm the potential therapeutic impacts of leech treatment, more studies are required in more extensive areas with more exact methodologies.
Misunderstanding of the function of the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) results in diminishing the diversity of both fauna and flora species and collapse of the the food on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. We used data obtained during an 11-year period to observe evolutionary habitat selection by the plateau pika in relation to an irrelevant phylogeny agent of livestock management. We hypothesized that local nomads are the irrelevant phylogeny agent in the Kobresia ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. In order to verify the above hypothesis, distance to nearest yak-bedding areas and dung management are the variables that most strongly explains variation in pika occupancy probability and probability of occupancy detection based on free-ranging livestock. Both occupancy and detection probability of pikas decrease sharply with increasing distance to nearest yak-bedding area, strongly suggesting that pika population densities are highest closest to yak-bedding areas. There is a strong correlation between dung cover and occupancy of the plateau pika—namely, the more dung drying on the ground; the more plateau pikas occupy the area. After the dung has damaged the grass, plateau pikas are apparently detected there. Thus, rangeland dominated by sedges of the genus Kobresia on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is modified by livestock grazing and management, especially dung management. This is the first reported evidence that local nomads may cause expansion of the habitat of the plateau pika and its occupancy.
Background and Purpose - Growing evidence supports a central role of NADPH oxidases (NOXs) in the regulation of platelets. Experimental Approach - Here, we characterise the NOX inhibitor 2-acetylphenothiazine (2APT) and nine of its chemical derivatives for their selectivity, their effect on platelet activation in response to different stimuli ex vivo, and their modulation of carotid thrombosis and hemostasis in vivo. Key Results - Using Nox1-/- mice, we proved that NOX1 is critical for collagen-dependent platelet aggregation and carotid thrombosis, while it does not affect thrombin-dependent aggregation or haemostasis. 2APT selectively inhibits NOX1 over NOX2 (IC50 141 nM and >10 µM, respectively). In agreement with a central role of NOX1 in collagen signalling, 2APT and its most potent derivative 1-(10H-phenothiazin-2-yl)vinyl tert-butyl carbonate (or 2APT-D6) inhibit collagen-dependent platelet aggregation with negligible effects on thrombin responses. 2APT-D6 displays higher potency compared to 2APT (52 vs 141 nM, respectively). Platelet adhesion to collagen in static and flow conditions, superoxide anion generation and surface maker expression in response to collagen were also inhibited by 2APT and 2APT-D6. Administration of 2APT or 2APT-D6 (200mg/kg) in diet for 48 hours led to inhibition of platelet aggregation, oxygen radical output, and thrombus formation, and carotid occlusion in vivo, while tail hemostasis was not affected. Conclusion and Implications - In summary, this study suggests that NOX1 inhibition by 2APT or 2APT-D6 is a viable strategy to control collagen-induced platelet activation and reduce thrombosis in vivo without acute deleterious effects on hemostasis or other aspects of mouse health.
Mahavier and Montgomery construct a Sobolev space for approximate solution of linear initial value problems in a finite difference setting in SINGLE-ITERATION SOBOLEV DESCENT FOR LINEAR INITIAL VALUE PROBLEMS, Mahavier, Montgomery, MJMS, 2013. Their Sobolev space is constructed so that gradient-descent converges to a solution in a single iteration, demonstrating the existence of a best Sobolev gradient for finite difference approximation of solutions of linear initial value problems. They then ask if there is a broader class of problems for which convergence in a single iteration in an appropriate Sobolev space occurs. We use their results to show the existence of single-step iteration to solution in a lower dimensional Sobolev space for their examples and then a class of problems for single-step convergence.
The current work is devoted for operating the Lie symmetry approach, to coupled complex short pulse equation. The method reduces the coupled complex short pulse equation to a system of ordinary differential equations with the help of suitable similarity transformations. Consequently, these systems of nonlinear ordinary differential equations under each subalgeras are solved for traveling wave solutions. Further, with the help of similarity variable, similarity solutions and traveling wave solutions of nonlinear ordinary differential equation, complex soliton solutions of the coupled complex short pulse equation are obtained which are in form of sinh, cosh, sin and cos functions.
in this work, we introduce an efficient meshless technique for solving the two-dimensional variable-order time-fractional mobile/immobile advection-diffusion model with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The main advantage of this scheme is to obtain a global approximation for this problem which reduces such problems to a system of algebraic equations. To approximate the first and fractional variable-order against the time, we use the finite difference relations. The proposed method is based on the Moving Kriging (MK) interpolation shape functions. To discretization this model in space variables, we use the MK interpolation. Duo to the fact that the shape functions of MK have Kronecker’s delta property, boundary conditions are imposed directly and easily. To illustrate the capability of the proposed technique on regular and irregular domains, several examples are presented in different kinds of domains and with uniform and nonuniform nodes. Also, we use this scheme to simulating anomalous contaminant diffusion in underground reservoirs.
In this paper, we define a non-iterative transformation method for an Extended Blasius Problem. The original non-iterative transformation method, which is based on scaling invariance properties, was defined for the classical Blasius problem by T\”opfer in 1912. This method allows us to solve numerically a boundary value problem by solving a related initial value problem and then rescaling the obtained numerical solution. In recent years, we have seen applications of the non-iterative transformation method to several problems of interest. The obtained numerical results are improved by both a mesh refinement strategy and Richardson’s extrapolation technique. In this way, we can be confident that the computed six decimal places are correct.
In this paper, we consider a laminated beams system with frictional damping and an internal distributed delay feedback on the effective rotational angle. With appropriate assumptions on the weight of the delay feedback and wave speeds, we prove that the dissipation through the frictional damping is sufficiently strong to uniformly stabilize the system even in the presence of delay.
Potato is among one of the most important food crops, yet maintaining plant productivity in this drought-sensitive crop has become a challenge. Competition for scarce water resources and the continued effects of global warming exacerbate current constraints on crop production. While plants’ response to drought in above-ground tissues has been well documented, the regulatory cascades in developing tubers have been largely unexplored. Using the commercial Canadian cultivar ‘Vigor’, plants were subjected to a drought treatment under high-tunnels causing a 4 ℃ increase in canopy temperature when compared to the well-watered control. Tubers were sampled for RNAseq and metabolite analysis. Approximately 2600 genes and 3898 transcripts were differentially expressed by at least four-fold in drought-stressed potato tubers, with 75 % and 69 % being down-regulated respectively. A further 229 small RNAs were implicated in gene regulation during drought. The comparison of protein homologues between Solanum tuberosum L. and Arabidopsis thaliana L. indicates that downregulated genes are associated with phenylpropanoid, carotenoid and patatin biosynthesis. This suggests that there are nutritive implications to drought stress occurring during the potato tuber bulking phase in sensitive cultivars.
Present contribution has consisted of a construction of a class of new shooting methods and application to Darcy Forchheimer fluid flow over the linearly stretching sheet under the influence of thermal radiations. Governing equations of the flow phenomena are presented in the form of partial differential equations, and these governing partial differential equations are reduced into ordinary differential equations. The final ordinary differential equations are resolved by the present given shooting method based on the class of Adam Moulton's techniques with the Gauss-Siedel iterative method. Since the system of the first-order differential is discretized by the Adam Moulton method with the Gauss-Siedel iterative method containing some unknown initial conditions, a shooting approach is employed for finding unknown initial conditions. Also, it is proved that the Adam Moulton methods using Gauss-Seidel iterative method are unconditionally stable for any system of differential equations. In additions to this, finite element simulations containing velocity profile, streamlines, temperature profile and temperature contours are deliberated with the help of graphs, and tables. Thus, the main aim of the current paper is to calculate the unique results for a coupling approach based on Adams Moulton's method for the boundary layer flow problem with the effect of heat transfer.
This paper analyzes a SIS model for infectious diseases with two classes of individuals with different susceptibilities. It focuses in a transition function between both classes of susceptible individuals depending on the density of the infected population. A classification of all the possible bifurcation diagrams that the model can present is done. Specifically, some conditions for the simultaneous existence of backward bifurcation and multiple endemic states are shown.
In this paper, we mainly focus on the theory of evolution of wave polarization in the normal direction of the curved path, which is assumed to be the trajectory of the propagated light beam. The polarization state of the wave is described by the unit complex transverse field component by eliminating the longitudinal field component, which reduces the dimension of the problem. A Coriolis term is also effectively used to describe the relationship between the geometric phase and the parallel transport law of the wave polarization vector of the evolving light beam in the normal direction of the curved path. We further present a unified geometric interpretation of the binormal evolution of the wave polarization vector in the normal direction of the curved path via the nonlinear Schrodinger equation of repulsive type. Finally, we can sum up these discussions by investigating the analytic solutions of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation of repulsive type, which represents binormal evolution of the polarization vector in the normal direction of the curved path trajectory, for some special cases by using the traveling wave hypothesis approach.
In this paper we consider a class of chemotaxis models with two arbitrary constitutive functions g(u) and f(v). After having performed a complete symmetry group classification with respect to them the reduced systems are derived. By considering g(u) of the logistic form wide classes of exact solutions are found.