The polysaccharidic mucilage is a widespread plant trait with diverse features, often present around plant structures in contact with the environment, providing numerous functions including protection and adhesion. In myxodiasporous species, a mucilage is released upon the imbibition of the seed (myxospermy) or the fruit (myxocarpy), and therefore can play roles in the early seedling stages. It is unclear whether myxodiaspory has one or multiple evolutionary origins and why it disappeared in several species. Here, we summarize the recent advances on (i) the mucilage and mucilage secretory cell diversity, (ii) the evolution of the molecular actors involved in myxospermy underlying the observed inter- and intra-species natural diversity and (iii) the recently identified ecological functions. At the intra-species level, a high polymorphism was detected for a few genes in relation to the observed morphological diversity. Well characterized transcriptions factors interact in master regulatory complexes to balance carbon partitioning in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. These transcription factors were sequentially recruited during seed plant evolution to control diverse traits including myxospermy, and their functions in seeds seem to be conserved across Rosids. Historically, the ecological functions of seed mucilage were mostly related to germination and seed dissemination but recently some exosystemic functions were uncovered such as soil micro-organism control and plant establishment support.
Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a multi-system disorder, resulted from the mutation in the ATM gene. Its mortality is largely related to some other disorders. Therefore, the management of its complications significantly improves patient quality of life. We studied a pediatric patient with A-T who one of his relatives had A-T.
Background and Aim Endoscopic radial artery (RA) harvest (ERAH) is an alternative to open RA harvest (ORAH) technique. Our aim was to compare clinical outcome, patent satisfaction and 1-year angiographic patency rates after ERAH and ORAH. Patients and methods 50 patients undergoing multivessel CABG were prospectively randomized to two groups. In the ERAH group (25 patients) the RA was harvested endoscopically and in the ORAH group (25 patients) openly. Results There were not differences between the groups in preoperative characteristics. Length of skin incision was shorter in ERAH (p<0.001) but there were not differences in the length of RA, harvest time, blood flow and pulsatility index after ERAH and ORAH. Wound healing was uniformly smooth in ERAH and there were 2 haematomas and 1 infection in ORAH. Postoperatively, major neuralgias were present in 5 patients in ORAH and none in ERAH (p=0.05) and minor neuralgias in 11 and 3 patients (p=0.02) respectively. Twenty-four patients in ERAH and 4 in ORAH graded their experience as excellent (p<00001). One-year angiographic RA patency was 90% without intergroup difference. Target vessel stenosis < 90% adversely affected RA patency (p<0.0001). Conclusions In expert center, ERAH has no negative impact on time harvest, length and quality of RA conduit. Moreover, ERAH may provide better wound healing, and is associated with less neuralgias, excellent cosmetic result and better patient satisfaction. RA graft patency is unaffected by the harvesting technique and is excellent when placed to a target coronary artery vessel with stenosis > 90%.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease which has rapidly evolved into a pandemic. Though it has affected all disciplines of medical sciences but it has some serious implications pertaining to cardiovascular sciences which have presented unique challenges in front of cardiac surgeons in particular. To flatten the curve of this pandemic, routine cardiac surgeries are being deferred indefinitely resulting in the pool of sick cardiac patients rising day by day. A different perspective is presented on this global catastrophe from the viewpoint of a cardiac surgeon.
Device embolization is a rare major complication of atrial septal defect percutaneous closures that requires surgical management if non-invasive retrieval fails. We report a symptomatic delayed embolization of an Amplatzer septal occluder device into the left ventricle outflow tract tangled with the mitral valve, complicated with ventricular arrhythmias and cardiac tamponade during percutaneous retrieval attempt. Emergent surgical treatment was performed, requiring combined approach through the right atrium and the aorta for surgical removal.
Pheochromocytoma is a rare catecholamine-secreting tumor derived from chromaffin cells in the adrenal glands. A pheochromocytoma ‘crisis’ (PCC) can cause haemodynamic instability and end-organ damage or dysfunction. An excessive stimulation of cardiac myocytes could lead to myocardial damage with cardiogenic shock (CS). Use of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) might find an indication in this scenario as a bridge to myocardial recovery. We present the case of a patient successfully supported with ECMO (ExtraCorporeal Membrane Oxygenation) combined with IMPELLA CP heart pump (Abiomed Danvers, MA), for left ventricular (LV) unloading. MCS was used to favour myocardial recovery and avoid cardiac remodeling.
Abstract The posterior rupture of the left ventricle has been a complication recognized since the beginning of mitral valve surgery and, despite advances in cardiac surgery, the outcome of the rupture of the left ventricle has remained tragic. During mitral valve surgery, care must be taken not to traumatize the free wall of the left ventricle. On the other side, septal Myectomy is performed on hypertrophied septums to address the left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. In this article I have presented a theory that could give a part of the explanation of the resistance of the interventricular septum of surgical trauma unlike the ventricular wall.
Bronchial artery aneurysms are a rare vascular entity. They can have various presentations ranging from an incidental finding on radiological examination to life-threatening hemoptysis. We report the case of a 60-year old woman with three posterior mediastinal bronchial artery aneurysms who presented with unilateral periscapular pain, shortness of breath, hoarseness, and dysphagia. The bronchial artery aneurysms were removed successfully via thoracotomy, with excellent recovery and relief of the periscapular pain. We use this case as a platform to discuss unilateral periscapular pain as an atypical referral pattern for a bronchial artery aneurysm, as well as implications for treatment.
A quarter of coronary arteriovenous fistulas may present aneurysmal dilatation; however, spontaneous rupture of the aneurysm is rare. We present a rare case of ruptured coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) associated with coronary fistulas that presented cardiac tamponade. Subsequent to pericardial drainage, surgical repair of the CAA associated with coronary fistulas was performed electively. The aneurysm was located on the left anterior aspect of the pulmonary artery trunk. It communicated with both the left and right coronary arteries by anomalous fistulous vessels that drained into the pulmonary artery trunk. The feeding arteries and fistulous opening were ligated and closed, respectively, from within the aneurysm. Intraoperative fluorescence imaging was performed pre- and postoperatively to ensure no residual coronary fistulas were present. Although the rupture of CAA associated with coronary fistulas is rare, it should be considered as one of the potential causes of acute cardiac tamponade.
Knowing how switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) responds and adapts to phosphorus (P)-limitation will aid efforts to optimize P-efficiency in this species for sustainable biomass production. This integrative study investigated the impacts of mild, moderate, and severe P-stress on genome transcription and whole-plant metabolism, physiology and development in an unprecedented way for this species. P-limitation reduced overall plant growth, increased root/shoot ratio, increased root branching at moderate P-stress, and decreased root diameter with increased density and length of root hairs at severe P-stress. RNA-seq analysis revealed thousands of genes that were differentially expressed under moderate and severe P-stress in roots and/or shoots compared to P-replete plants, with many stress-induced genes involved in transcriptional and other forms of regulation, primary and secondary metabolism, transport, and other processes involved in P-acquisition and homeostasis. Amongst the latter were multiple miRNA399 genes and putative targets of these. Metabolite profiling showed that levels of most sugars and sugar alcohols decreased with increasing P stress, while organic and amino acids increased under mild and moderate P-stress in shoots and roots, although this trend reversed under severe P-stress, especially in shoots.
Aim: The COVID pandemic is caused by infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The major mutation detected to date in the SARS-CoV-2 viral envelope spike protein, which is responsible for virus attachment to the host and is also the main target for host antibodies, is a mutation of an aspartate (D) at position 614 found frequently in Chinese strains to a glycine (G). We sought to infer health impact of this mutation. Result: Increased case fatality rate correlated strongly with the proportion of viruses bearing G614 on a country by country basis. The amino acid at position 614 occurs at an internal protein interface of the viral spike, and the presence of G at this position was calculated to destabilize a specific conformation of the viral spike, within which the key host receptor binding site is more accessible. Conclusion: These results imply that G614 is a more pathogenic strain of SARS-CoV-2, which may influence vaccine design. The prevalence of this form of the virus should also be included in epidemiologic models predicting the COVID-19 health burden and fatality over time in specific regions. Physicians should be aware of this characteristic of the virus to anticipate the clinical course of infection. What is known about this topic? Nothing is known about the health significance of the D614G SARS-CoV-2 variant. What does this article add? A molecular clue to viral molecular pathogenesis of COVID-19 disease.
Understanding the scaling between leaf size and leafing intensity is crucial for comprehending theories about light interception and leaf carbon uptake and adjustments in life history strategies. To test whether have the broad scope predictions between leaf size variation and leafing intensity on first year stem in evergreens and deciduous. A comprehensive data set of minimum (Mmin) and maximum (Mmax) leaf mass and total leaf number in twig was compiled, as well as data for the stem volume and mass. The datasets provide measurements of 123 woody species in subtropical mountain forests. Standardized major axis (SMA) analysis was used to determine the effects of the variation in leaf size (i.e., Mmin to Mmax) and the effects of different functional groups on the trade-off between leaf size and leafing intensity, i.e., the leafing intensity based on stem volume (LIV) and stem mass (LIM). Leaf size plasticity variation did not differ between evergreen and deciduous functional groups, but Mmin scaled as the 1.19 power of Mmax. Across the 123 species, the scaling exponents of the pooled data ranged between -1.14 to -0.96 for Mmin and Mmax vs. the leafing intensity based on stem volume (LIV) and from -1.24 to -1.04 for Mmin and Mmax vs. the leafing intensity based on stem mass (LIM). Across the subtropical woody species examined in this study, the results show the scaling relationship between leaf mass and leafing intensity is constrained to be ≤ -1.0. More importantly, the scopes in twig leaf size and the leafing intensity correlate with the biomass allocation to minimum and maximum leaf mass, and not sensitive to plant functional groups in subtropical mountain forests.
Personalization of oral small molecule anticancer drug doses based on individual patient blood drug levels, also known as therapeutic drug monitoring or TDM, has the potential to significantly improve the effectiveness of treatment by maximizing drug efficacy and minimize toxicity. However, this option has not yet been widely embraced by the oncology community. Some reasons for this include increased logistical complexity of dose individualization, the lack of clinical laboratories that measure small molecule drug concentrations in support of patient care, and the lack of reimbursement of costs. However, the main obstacle may be the lack of studies clearly demonstrating that monitoring of oral small molecule anticancer drug levels actually improves clinical outcomes. Without unequivocal evidence in support of TDM-guided dose individualization, especially demonstration of improved survival with TDM in randomized controlled trials, wide acceptance of this approach by oncologists and reimbursement by insurance companies is unlikely, and patients may continue to suffer as a result of receiving incorrect drug doses. This article reviews the current status of therapeutic drug monitoring of oral small molecule drugs in oncology and intends to provide strategic insights into the design of studies for evaluating the utility of TDM in this clinical context.
The deployment of artesunate for severe malaria and the artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) for uncomplicated malaria has been a major advance in antimalarial therapeutics. These drugs have reduced treated mortality, accelerated recovery, and reduced treatment failure rates and transmission from the treated infection. These drugs remain highly effective against falciparum malaria in most malaria endemic areas but significant resistance has emerged in the Greater Mekong subregion of Southeast Asia. Resistance to artemisinin was followed by resistance in the ACT partner drugs, and fit multidrug resistant parasite lineages have now spread widely across the region. ACTs are highly effective against P. vivax and the other malaria species. Recent studies show that radical curative regimens of primaquine (to prevent relapse) can be shortened to seven days, and that the newly introduced single dose tafenoquine is an alternative, although the currently recommended dose is insufficient in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Targeted malaria elimination using focal mass treatments with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine have proved safe and effective malaria elimination accelerators, but progress overall towards malaria elimination is very slow. Indeed since 2015 overall malaria case numbers globally have risen.
The present paper is devoted to study the space identification problem for the elliptic-telegraph differential equation in Hilbert spaces with the self-adjoint positive definite operator. The main theorem on the stability of the space identification problem for the elliptictelegraph differential equation is proved. In applications, theorems on the stability of three source identification problems for one dimensional with nonlocal conditions and multidimensional elliptic-telegraph differential equations are established.
In that paper, firstly we get two additional different non-null space curve evolutions in Minkowski 3-space by considering Landau-Lifshitz (LL-) equation where we identify the spin vector with the binormal vector and the normal vector of these curves, respectively. Then, we obtain some links for constructing the moving non-null space curves by using the integrable LL- equation. Finally, we give as an application, the exact solution of the moving non-null curve evolutions obtained by taking the spin vector the normal vector of the curve and we showed graphically that these solutions are wave solutions.
The native and invasive species in the Yellow River Delta were examined for their spatiotemporal characteristics and succession pattern. First, the appropriate Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 images from 2018 were selected according to phenological characteristics. A random forest algorithm was used to verify the image spectral band significance and separability using selected images to determine the native and invasive species. Then, the spatiotemporal variation of habitat structure of native and invasive species is discussed in depth from the perspective of landscape ecology. Finally, the expansion direction and expansion mode of S. alterniflora were further analyzed, and main results were obtained as follows. (1) At the medium-high resolution multi-spectral image level, the accuracy of different vegetation community extractions can be improved by taking into consideration both the vegetation phenology and the spectral features of remote sensing images. (2) Sentinel-2 images with red edge bands have obvious advantages in vegetation community extraction as compared to Landsat-8 images (Sentinel-2, OA=82.86%, Kappa coefficient=0.79; Landsat-8, OA=78.77%, Kappa coefficient=0.74). (3) The expansion pattern of the S. alterniflora community became spatially continuous, more regularized and aggregated overtime. (4) The expansion in the north shore mainly faces to the sea, and the south bank mainly faces to the land, and this phenomena is closely related to the sedimentation of the Yellow River Delta. Marginal and external expansion both occurred, but marginal expansion predominated. The results from this study have important theoretical and scientific value for the environmental protection and sustainable development of the entire Yellow River Delta.