We present a unique Richter's transformation case in CNS with identical to CLL clonal origin in a patient treated with Venetoclax. With our case we make implications on whether Venetoclax penetrates the blood-brain barrier and we address the debating issue of the appropriate Venetoclax dose in case of drug-drug interactions.
Background The role of percutaneous repair of functional mitral regurgitation (MR) is evolving. Left ventricle remodeling is known to be different between men and women; however, outcomes following percutaneous repair of functional MR have not considered the impact of sex. Methods Between 2012 and 2018, 175 patients underwent percutaneous repair of functional MR with the Mitra Clip NT/NTR (Abbott, Irvine CA) at our institution. Patients were assessed in a dedicated clinic with a follow-up that averaged 0.7±1.2 years and extended to 5.7 years. Results Men had a larger body surface area than women (p<0.001), whereas women were more likely than men to have diabetes preoperatively (p=0.02). There were no deaths or instances of single leaflet detachment. Immediate post-procedure MR was <2+ in 158 (90%) with a mean trans-mitral valve repair gradient of 3.4±1.0 and 3.5±2.1 mm Hg, respectively for women and men (p=0.8). One- and 2-year freedom from MR >3+ was 86.0±3.5% and 77.6±5.1%, respectively. After adjusting for differences between male and female patients, women were more likely to have recurrent MR >3+ (hazard ratio 4.7, 95% confidence interval 1.2-18.4, p=0.03). Upon adjusted analysis, there was also no association between gender and survival (p=0.2). One- and 2- year survival was 69.8±4.3% and 54.3±5.5%, respectively. Conclusion Women are more likely to have recurrent severe MR after percutaneous repair of functional MR. The mechanism for this remains undetermined.
One Electrogram-Tracing Tells All: what is the mechanism of this supraventricular tachycardia?Moyuru Hirata, MD*, Yuji Wakamatsu, MD*, Koichi Nagashima, MD, PhD*, Sayaka Kurokawa, MD, PhD*, Naoto Otsuka, MD*, Seina Yagyu, MD*, Shu Hirata, MD*, Toshiko Nakai, MD, PhD*, Yasuo Okumura, MD, PhD*.*Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanCorrespondenceKoichi Nagashima, MD, PhD; Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Ohyaguchi-kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610, JapanTel: +81-3-3972-8111Fax: +81-3-3972-1098E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgTotal word count: 1036 words, 2 FiguresFunding: (None)Disclosures: (None)The work described was supported by departmental resources only.Keywords: narrow QRS tachycardia, atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia, accessary pathway.
The diagnosis of acute myocarditis (AM) remains challenging because of its diverse clinical manifestations. Thus, a wide range of diagnostic tests may be warranted. Although cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is the preferred imaging technique, it may not be applicable in the acute AM phase. Our case report highlights the usefulness and diagnostic accuracy of echocardiographic examination. In the first 2-dimensional echocardiography, the focal echobright was presented. A reduced value of global longitudinal strain, and regional disturbances of segmental myocardial strain, both longitudinal and circumferential, in the epicardial layer, were detected with a good correlation with CMR results.
Objectives: The goal of this study was to describe and evaluate our simulation training program on biological models for the cardiovascular surgery residency program at our institution. Material and Methods: Since 2016, with the purpose to develop better practical performance and evaluate the improvement of resident’s surgical skills, it was implemented a simulation training program, composed of some elemental procedures in cardiovascular surgery. It was established one wet lab session weekly lasting 2 hours, coached by 2 expert cardiovascular surgeons. Bovine and porcine hearts were used as biological models. At the end of the hands on program, an objective assessment consisting of 2 practical modules was applied and performance was rated by way of a 5-point scale. In addition, to provide a subjective assessment, each resident filled out a questionnaire consisting of 3 items reviewing the overall quality of the workshops on a 10-point scale. Results: The objective evaluation applied at the end of the training program consisted by valve replacement and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) modules. The mean performance rating scores for valve replacement module ranged from 4.2 to 4.79, and to CABG, from 4.33 to 4.87. Regarding subjective assessment, all items evaluated, such as expert’s didactics, simulation performance and biological simulator fidelity, received high grades (above 9 on a 10-point scale). Conclusions: Simulator training on biological models for cardiac surgery medical residents is a simple and effective learning method of surgical skills.
In this issue, Zhao et al. investigate the effects of subclinical hypothyroidism in coronary bypass grafting particularly with respect to the incidence of atrial fibrillation. While not the first of its kind, the authors analyze this controversial topic in a well powered, statistically comprehensive manner that furthers our understanding of the effects of SCH in CABG patients.
Improving clinical practice in ENT: lessons learnt from the COVID-19 pandemicJames R Tysome, Cambridge University Hospitals, UKEditor-in-Chief, Clinical OtolaryngologyWhile currently in the midst of another wave of COVID-19 infections, putting untold strain on both healthcare systems and healthcare workers around the globe, it is important to reflect on the changes that we have all had to make. All ENT departments, within a very short timeframe, restructured clinical services to prioritise the delivery of patient care to those with the greatest clinical need, while increasing services such as tracheostomy for the high number of patients with COVID-19 in intensive care. We also changed the methods that we use to teach our trainees and share knowledge with colleagues. Many of these changes have been successful and should now be maintained in the future.It has been fascinating to see the how the research community built new research networks and redirected focus to projects related to understanding SARS-CoV-2 infection; surveillance and public health measures, optimising patient management of the disease and understanding the impact of COVID-19 on different healthcare systems. This resulted in over 89,000 peer reviewed publications relating to COVID-19 in 2020 and the development of new research structures such as CovidSurg , a global collaborative platform of studies aiming to explore the impact of COVID-19 on surgical patients.1Two papers in this issue demonstrate how clinical practice in ENT adapted to COVID-19. The first explores the publication of guidance relevant to ENT.2 Both national bodies and specialist societies across the globe published guidance on how services should be reconfigured, patients prioritised, and ENT surgeons protected, particularly with respect to aerosol generating procedures given the potential high risk of infection. It is the speed of publication that was particularly impressive. Of the 175 online publications of COVID guidance related to ENT, 41% were published between the third and fourth week of March 2020.The second study explores the impact of this guidance on clinical care through a prospective audit of the management of tonsillitis and peritonsillar abscess in 86 hospitals across the UK following the publication of guidelines by ENT UK, the professional body representing ENT surgeons in the UK. This provided a pathway that aimed to prevent hospital admission when safe to do so.3 Increased use of single doses of intravenous dexamethasone and antibiotics resulted in return to swallowing in many patients, allowing patients to be discharged safely, without later increases in re-presentation or admission.These studies show the strong clinical leadership has been demonstrated within the ENT community, removing traditional barriers to change. Clinicians have taken the initiative to develop new pathways and new ways of working. An almost overnight change from face-to-face appointments to remote appointments took place in many hospitals, showing how we can adapt when needed. Remote appointments, either by telephone4 or video calls,5 are suitable for many ENT patients, preferred by many and are certainly here to stay.There has been rapid scaling of technology such as digital consultation platforms to enable this remote service delivery. Video conferencing facilitates multidisciplinary team meetings, bringing together clinicians at distant locations to discuss patient management in an efficient manner without the need to spend hours travelling to meet in the same location. Virtual patient consultations can allow sharing of digital information such as imaging without the patient needing to leave their home, reduced footfall in previously over-crowded outpatient departments.New teaching and training opportunities have arisen through the use of digital conferencing platforms, replacing traditional teaching programmes and allowing us to reach larger audiences.6Entire conferences have successfully moved to virtual participation. These opportunities have the potential to significantly enrich training and teaching in the future.We have seen many examples of enhanced local system working. ENT and intensive care teams have needed to work more closely together to manage patients with COVID-19 requiring a tracheostomy.7 It is important that these closer relationships are maintained in the future for patient benefit.The ENT community has demonstrated strong clinical leadership, adaptability to rapid change, enhanced clinical pathways and local networks, widespread use of digital technology for consultation and teaching and redirection of research programmes. These have permanently changed the way we work and, when the current global pandemic improves as COVID-19 infections drop and vaccination programmes are rolled out, we should ensure that the positive changes that have been made are embedded in clinical practice to improve patient care.Globalsurg.org. Covidsurg, NIHR Global Health Research Unit on Global Surgery [Cited 2020 Jan 18]. Available from https://globalsurg.org/covidsurg/Cernei st al. Timing and volume of information produced for the Otolaryngologist during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. A review of the volume of online literature. Clin Otolaryngol;46(2):???????Smith M, et al. Admission avoidance in tonsillitis and peritonsillar abscess: a prospective national audit during the initial peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Clin Otolaryngol;46(2):???????Sharma S and Daniel M. Telepmedicine in paediatric otorhinolaryngology: lessons learnt from remote encounters during the COVID19 pandemic and implications for future practice. Int J Paediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2020:139:110411.Fieux M, et al. Telemedicine for ENT: effect on quality of care during COVID-19 pandemic. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis 2020; 137(4):257-261.Herman A, et al. National, virtual otolaryngology training day in the United Kingdom during the COIVD-19 pandemic: results of a pilot survey. J Surg Educ. 2020; S1931-7204McGrath BA, et al. Multidisciplinary guidance for safe tracheostomy care during the COVID-19 pandemic: the NHS National Patient Safety Improvement Programme (NatPatSIP). Anaesthesia 2020;75(12):1659-1670.
Background: Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) evaluation of left ventricular (LV) volume and function in pediatrics compares favorably with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of this study was to establish from a multicenter, normal pediatric z-score values of 3DE left ventricular volumes and function. Methods: Six hundred and ninety-eight healthy children (ages 0 to 18 years) were recruited from five centers. LV 3DE was acquired from the 4-chamber view. A vendor independent software analyzed end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), and ejection fraction (EF) using semi-automated quantification. Body surface area (BSA) based z-scores were generated. Intraobserver and interobserver variability were calculated using intraclass correlation (ICC) and repeatability coefficient (RC). Results: Z-scores were generated for ESV, EDV, and SV. The ICC for intraobserver variability for EDV, ESV, and SV were 0.99, 0.99, and 0.99 respectively. The ICC for interobserver variability for EDV, ESV, and SV were 0.98, 0.94, and 0.98 respectively. The RC for intraobserver and interobserver variability for LV EF was 4.39% (95% CI: 3.01, 5.59) and interobserver was 7.08% (95%CI: 5.51, 8.42). Conclusions: We report pediatric Z-scores for normal LV volumes using the semi-automated method from five centers, enhancing its generalizability. 3DE evaluation of LV volumes and EF in pediatric patients is highly reproducible.
Invasive ants shape assemblages and interactions of native species, but their effect on fundamental ecological processes is poorly understood. In East Africa, Pheidole megacephala ants have invaded monodominant stands of the ant-tree Acacia drepanolobium, extirpating native ant defenders and rendering trees vulnerable to canopy damage by vertebrate herbivores. We used experiments and observations to quantify direct and interactive effects of invasive ants and large herbivores on A. drepanolobium photosynthesis over a 2-year period. Trees that had been invaded for ≥ 5 years exhibited 69% lower whole-tree photosynthesis during key growing seasons, resulting from interaction between invasive ants and vertebrate herbivores that caused leaf- and canopy-level photosynthesis declines. We also surveyed trees shortly before and after invasion, finding that recent invasion induced only minor changes in leaf physiology. Our results from individual trees likely scale up, highlighting the potential of invasive species to alter ecosystem-level carbon fixation and other biogeochemical cycles.
Article type: News and Views: Groundbreaking Discoveries in ImmunologyTitle: Uncovering the influence of diet and gut microbiota in human serum metabolomeAuthors: David Obeso1,2‡, Elisa Zubeldia-Varela1,2‡ and Alma Villaseñor11Instituto de Medicina Molecular Aplicada (IMMA), Departamento de Ciencias Médicas Básicas. Facultad de Medicina. Universidad San Pablo-CEU, CEU Universities, Madrid, España.2Centro de Metabolómica y Bioanálisis (CEMBIO), Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad San Pablo-CEU, CEU Universities, Urbanización Montepríncipe, Madrid, España.‡: These Authors have equally contributedCorrespondence: Alma Villaseñor, Centro de Metabolómica y Bioanálisis (CEMBIO), Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad San Pablo-CEU, CEU Universities, Urbanización Montepríncipe, Madrid, EspañaEmail address:email@example.comKeywords: Metabolomics, Diet, Microbiota, Allergy, Serum, MetabolomeAbbreviations: MS, mass spectrometry; LC, liquid chromatography; short chain fatty acids (SCFA)Acknowledgement: We would like to thank Anna Głobińska for her assistance in generating the graphical figure. AV Gratefully acknowledges the Martín-Carbajo family for supporting her scientific development through the X Mario Martín Velamazán award.Author contributions: D.O., E.Z-V. and A.V contributed to the writing of the manuscript and have given approval to the manuscript. A.V. supervised the final version.
Over the past fifteen years, the number of papers focused on “eco-evo dynamics” has increased exponentially (Figure 1). This pattern suggests the rapid growth of a new, integrative discipline. We argue that this overstates the case. First, the terms “eco-evo dynamics” and “eco-evo interactions” are used too imprecisely. As a result, many studies that claim to describe eco-evo dynamics are actually describing basic ecological or evolutionary processes. Second, these terms are often used as if the study of how ecological and evolutionary processes are intertwined is novel when, in fact, it is not. The result is confusion over what the term “eco-evolution” and its derivatives describe, a loss of appreciation for the history of genuine eco-evolutionary studies, and a loss of appreciation for the novelty associated with the original rise of the term. We advocate a more precise definition of eco-evolution that is more useful in our effort to understand and characterize the diversity of ecological and evolutionary processes and that focuses attention on the subset of those processes that offer novel results.
Global influenza virus circulation declined and has been below traditional seasonal levels during the COVID-19 pandemic.1-3 We reviewed WHO influenza surveillance outputs from May 1-December 31, 2020 (epidemiologic weeks 18-53) from tropical Asian countries. For each country we report influenza surveillance specimens tested, and the percentage positive for influenza, by type and subtype. We compared current data to historical data from 2015-2019 in order to place the current season in historical context. Twelve included countries tested 17,407 surveillance specimens, with 592 (3.4%) testing positive for influenza viruses. From April 27-July 26, 2020 (epidemiologic weeks 18-30), specimens tested decreased from an average of 14,102 per year in 2015-2019 to 3,969 (71.9% decrease) and influenza positivity from 22% to <1%. During weeks 31-53, specimens tested decreased from an average of 24,782 per year in 2015-2019 to 13,438 (45.8% decrease) and influenza positivity from 18% to 4%. In six countries that maintained testing of surveillance specimens for >90% of weeks, influenza circulation was unseasonably low, or absent, during weeks 18-30, 2020. However, during weeks 31-53, the percentage of surveillance specimens testing positive for influenza approached or reached positivity rates of 2015-2019 in Bangladesh and Cambodia; and increased but remained lower than historical positivity in Lao PDR and Viet Nam. The data presented here are a reminder that the low levels of influenza circulation in the northern hemisphere in summer 2020 may not necessarily persist into the upcoming influenza season, and influenza surveillance and prevention strategies should continue as planned and not be delayed.