Background and aim of the study: We report our one-year single-center experience of a new technique of aortic valve replacement using a rapid-deployment valve (RD-AVR) to avoid postoperative complications. We also report the unexpected pitfalls and handling techniques that we have seen in past cases. Methods: We performed aortic valve replacement on 38 patients between May 2019 and April 2020. Their mean age was 74 years. The primary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and short-term results during a one-year follow-up period, while the secondary outcomes were related to prosthetic valve function, especially paravalvular leakage (PVL). We further analyzed the relationship between the new technique and its outcomes. Results: The mean operative time was 196 min. There were no in-hospital deaths, and the mean duration of postoperative hospital stay was 11.8 days. Valvular measurements using 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) were larger and more accurate than those measured using ultrasonic echocardiography Postoperative RD-AVR prosthetic valve function was excellent. However, PVL occurred in 4 cases one week and one year postoperatively and regurgitation did not improve. A gap associated with PVL was identified below the right-noncoronary commissure. To prevent PVL, we additionally stitched this gap in the later 18 cases; there was no case of PVL and no new pacemaker implantation in these cases. Conclusions: PVL is more likely to occur if there is a gap below the R-N commissure, especially in cases with a large annulus; therefore, applying an additional stitch to the R-N commissure is extremely useful.
Purpose: The FDA-issued PLATO trial dataset revealed that some primary deaths causes (PDC) were inaccurately reported favoring ticagrelor. However, the PLATO Investigators operated the shorter death list of uncertain quality. We compared if PDC match when trial fatalities were reported to the FDA and by the PLATO investigators. Method: The FDA list contains precisely detailed 938 PLATO deaths, while shorter investigators dataset consists of 905 deaths. We matched 4 vascular (sudden, post-MI, heart failure and stroke), and 3 non-vascular (cancer, sepsis and suicide) PDC between death lists. Results: There were more sudden deaths in the shorter list than in the FDA dataset (161 vs.138; p<0.03), post-AMI (373 vs.178; p<0.001) but fewer heart failure deaths (73 vs.109; p=0.02). Stroke numbers match well (39 vs. 37; p=NS) with only 2 ticagrelor cases removed. Cancer matched well (32 vs.31; p=NS), and sepsis cases were identical (30 vs. 30; P=NS). However, 2 extra clopidogrel suicides in the shorter list are impossible to comprehend. Conclusions: The PLATO trial PDC were mismatched between FDA and Investigators sets. We are kindly asking the ticagrelor sponsor or/and concerned PLATO Investigators to clarify the PDC dataset match.
A case of a 42-year-old woman, Para 3 who had an unplanned pregnancy despite bilateral tubal ligation for contraception, and Novasure® endometrial ablation for persistent Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (HMB). The pregnancy was complicated by missed miscarriage at 14 weeks and placenta accreta. This is an uncommon event.
CABG (Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting) has been the treatment of choice for coronary artery disease for over 50 years and is the most common cardiac surgery procedure performed. Traditionally CABG was performed with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass and the use of cardioplegia to allow the surgeon to operate on a stable field. In the mid-1990s, interest emerged in performing CABG without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass - off pump CABG. This invited commentary focuses on sharing our experience with Low Ejection fraction off-pump CABG and why this approach could be beneficial to this patient population.
Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) agents are effective in diseases including Crohn’s disease (CD) but may cause cytopenias. The mechanisms involved in anti-TNFα agents induced thrombocytopenia are scarce. We report a 73-year-old male with Crohn’s disease for which he currently used adalimumab, an anti-TNFα agent. He had received mesalazine and infliximab before the treatment of adalimumab. No comorbidities were present. Routine laboratory tests revealed a deep thrombocytopenia (thrombocytes 24x10*9/L) after which adalimumab was discontinued. Bleeding symptoms included cutaneous hematomas and mild epistaxis. Direct monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of platelet antigens (MAIPA assay) revealed autoantibodies specific to glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) and glycoprotein V (GPV) platelet receptors. There was no bone marrow suppression. Other causes of the thrombocytopenia were ruled out. The platelet count normalized after adalimumab discontinuation. No further interventions were required. Monitoring thrombocyte levels after initiating anti-TNFα agents is recommended, which could lead to prevention of this potential fatal phenomenon.
Introduction: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used as a refractory treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to COVID-19, but there has been little evidence of its efficacy. We conducted this study to share our experience using ECMO as a bridge to recovery for ARDS due to COVID-19. Methods: All adult patients who were placed on ECMO for ARDS due to COVID -19 between April 2020 and June 2020 (during the first wave of COVID-19) were identified. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of these patients were analyzed with a specific focus on the differences between patients who survived to hospital discharge and those who did not. Results: 20 COVID-19 patients were included in this study. All patients were placed on veno-veno ECMO. Comparing between survivors and non-survivors, older age was associated with hospital mortality (p=0.02). The following complications were observed: renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (35%, n=7), bacteremia during ECMO (20%, n=4),coinfection with bacterial pneumonia (15%, n=3), cannula site bleeding (15%, n=3), stroke (10%, n=2), gastrointestinal bleeding (10%, n=2), and liver failure (5%, n=1). The complications associated with patient mortality were culture positive septic shock (p=0.01), culture-negative systemic inflammatory response syndrome (p=0.01), and renal failure (p=0.01). The causes of death were septic shock (44%, n=4), culture-negative systemic inflammatory response syndrome (44%, n=4), and stroke (11%, n=1). Conclusions: Based on our experience, ECMO can improve refractory ARDS due to COVID-19 in select patients. Proper control of bacterial infections during COVID-19 immunomodulation therapy may be critical to improving survival.
Commentary:When Starting a MICS Program, Don’t Assume Excellence: Prove It!Rachel Eikelboom MD1,2, Rashmi Nedadur MD3,Roberto Vanin Pinto Ribeiro MD3, Bobby Yanagawa MD PhD31 Department of Surgery, Max Rady College of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada2 Division of Cardiac Surgery, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada3 Division of Cardiac Surgery, St Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaCorresponding author:Bobby Yanagawa MD, PhD, FRCSC Program Director, Division of Cardiac Surgery, University of Toronto Assistant Professor, Division of Cardiac Surgery, St. Michael’s Hospital 30 Bond Street, 8th Floor, Bond Wing Toronto, ON M5B 1W8 Canada Tel: 416 864 5706 Fax: 416 864 5031 Email: email@example.comWord count: 430Conflict of interest: The authors have no conflict of interest and have not received any funding.Central Figure:
Aim The aim of this study is to model the past, current and future distribution of J. phoenicea s.s., J. turbinata and J. canariensis, based on bioclimatic variables using a maximum entropy model (MaxEnt) in the Mediterranean and Macaronesian regions. Location Mediterranean and Macaronesian Taxon Cupressaceae, Juniperus Methods Data on the occurrence of the J. phoenicea complex was obtained from the GBIF, the literature, herbaria, and the authors’ field notes. The bioclimatic variables were obtained from the WorldClim database (http://worldclim.org/) and Paleoclim (http://www.paleoclim.org/). The climate data related to species localities were used for predictions of niches by implementation of MaxEnt and we evaluated the model with ENMeval. Results The potential niches of Juniperus phoenicea during the LIG, LGM and MH covered 30%, 10% and almost 100%, respectively, of the current potential niche. Climate warming could reduce potential niches by 30% and 90% in scenarios RCP2.6 and RCP8.5, respectively. The potential niches of Juniperus turbinata had a broad circum-Mediterranean and Canarian distribution during the LIG and the MH, extending its distribution during the LGM when it was found in more areas than at present; the predicted warming in scenario RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 could reduce the current potential niche by 30% and 50%, respectively. The model did not find suitable niches for J. canariensis during the LIG and the LGM, but during the MH its potential niche was 30% larger than at present. The climate warming scenario RCP2.6 indicates a reduction of the potential niche by 30%, while RCP8.5 does so by almost 60%. Main conclusions This research can provide information to increase the protection of the juniper forest and to try to counteract the phenomenon of local extinctions caused by anthropic pressure and climate changes.
Introduction: Several homeostatic changes like an increase in sympathoadrenal response and oxidative stress occur in hypoglycemia. As a result of these findings, an increase in inflammation and pre-atherogenic factors is observed and these changes may lead to endothelial dysfunction. Aim: Our study aims to reveal possible cardiac risks (systolic-diastolic functions and endothelial dysfunctions) in patients who have applied to the emergency department with hypoglycemia. Methods: This cross-sectional, case-control study included 46 hypoglycemia patients who admitted to the emergency with symptoms compatible with hypoglycemia and diagnosed with hypoglycemia and 30 healthy volunteers. All patients were evaluated with baseline echocardiography, tissue-doppler imaging(carotid and brachial artery). Also, the fasting blood tests of the patients referred to the internal medicine department were examined. Results: There were no differences between the groups regarding age, weight, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure. Total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, Vitamin B12, TSH, and fasting blood glucose levels were similar in the groups’ blood tests (all p values>0.05). We observed a statistically significant decrease in diastolic dysfunction parameters: E/A and E/e’ ratios (respectively, p=0.020 and 0.026). It was shown that insulin resistance was influential in forming these considerable differences. The patient group observed that the carotid intima-media thickness was more remarkable(p=0.001), and the brachial flow-mediated dilatation value was smaller(p=0.003), giving an idea about endothelial functions.
Described is an atypical presentation of a rare condition. It highlights the importance of thorough algorithm of medical and family history, physical examination, appropriate investigations and perioperative workup and for surgery. This case raises the awareness that a lateral neck mass (or lateral ectopic thyroid mass) can be benign.
This report describes the case of a 53-year-old man with SARS-CoV-2 infection and occurrence of complete unilateral sensorineural hearing loss, adding new evidence to the association between COVID-19 and hearing loss. Whether this is the result of endothelial cell dysfunction in the cochlea or central auditory pathways remains unclear.
As the clinical course of COVID-19 infection in SCD patients is not clear, close monitoring is essential. We emphasize that RBC exchange should be offered early to avoid possible deterioration. We present a case of COVID-19 infection in a SCD patient causing severe hemolysis, that improved after RBC exchange.
Large occurrence datasets provide a sizable resource for ecological analyses, but have substantial limitations. Phenological analyses in Fric et al. (2020) were misleading due to inadequate curation and improper statistics. Our reanalysis of 22 univoltine species with sufficient data for independent analysis found substantive differences in macroscale phenological patterns.
The hybrid impression technique consists of an initial alginate impression that provides a pre-operative cast upon which a diagnostic wax-up and a silicone index impression are made. This work is digitized; thus, the altered final digital impression is limited to absolute minimum time, effort and ensures comfort for the patient.
We report applications of novel high-frame rate blood speckle tracking (BST) echocardiography in a series of infants with congenital heart disease (CHD). BST echocardiography was highly feasible, reproducible, and fast. High-frame rate BST provided complimentary information to conventional color-Doppler data enhancing the visualization and understanding of anomalous blood trajectories (e.g., shunt direction, regurgitant volumes, and stenotic jets) and vortex formation. High-frame rate BST echocardiography is a new, promising imaging tool that may be helpful for deeper understanding of complex CHD physiology.
Foreign bodies’ impact in paranasal sinuses are unusual clinical conditions and most often occur in the maxillary sinus. Odontogenic sources induce maxillary sinusitis in approximately 10 to 12% of cases. Iatrogenic dental manipulation is the most common cause of foreign bodies’ impaction in the maxillary sinus.