Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae) Mart has high ecological and economic importance providing food resources for more than 58 species of birds and 20 species of mammals, including humans. E. edulis is the second most explored non-timber product from Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Due to overexploitation and destruction of habitats, E. edulis is threatened by extinction. E. edulis populations have large morphological variations, with individuals having green, red or yellow leaf sheath. However, no study has related phenotypic distinctions between populations and their levels of genetic structure. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the diversity and genetic structure of different E. edulis morphotypes. We sampled 250 adult individuals in eight populations with the different morphotypes. Using 14 microsatellite markers, we access genetic diversity through population genetic parameters calculated in the GenAlex program and the diveRsity package in R. We used the Wilcoxon test to verify population bottlenecks and the genetic distance of Nei and Bayesian analysis for genetic clusters. The eight populations showed low allele richness, low heterogeneity observed and high inbreeding values (f). In addition, six of the eight populations experienced genetic bottlenecks, which would partly explain the low genetic diversity in populations. Cluster analysis identified two clusters (K=2), with green morphotype genetically distinguishing from yellow and red morphotypes. Thus, we show, for the first time, a strong genetic structure among E. edulis morphotypes even for geographically close populations.
Multi-reference configuration interaction, MR-CI (including extensivity corrections, named +Q) calculations have been performed on S0 to S3 states of cyclohexa-2,4-diene-1-thione (thione 24) and cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1-thione (thione 25), which are thione isomers of thiophenol. Several types of uncontracted MR-CIS and MR-CISD wavefunctions have been employed, comprising MR-CI expansions as large as ~ 374 x 106 configuration state functions. The nature of the studied excited states has been characterized. Vertical excitation energies (ΔE) and oscillator strengths (f) have been computed. The most intense transitions (S0→S2 for 24 and S0→S3 for 25) do not change with the wavefunction, although a variation as large as ~ 1 eV has been obtained for the S3 state of 24. On the other hand, ΔE changes at most ~ 0.15 eV for 25, as the wavefunction changes. The S1 state of both thiones has nπ* character and is in the visible region. For 24 S2 and S3 are ππ* and nπ* states, respectively, while for 25 the reverse order has been obtained. S2 and S3 are in the range from ~ 3.5 to 5.2 eV, at the highest level (MR-CI+Q). It is the first time that the excited states of the title molecules are studied. The computed results agree with the experimental onsets of photoreactions of thiones 24 and 25 found by Reva et. al. (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2015, 17, 4888).
Quantitative analyses on the coefficient of friction of common coating waxes are necessary and essential for designing systems for coating, conveying, packaging operations, transporting and storing of papers and paperboards, while analyses on wear behavior can be helpful for predicting performance durability of the coating surface. In this study, we investigated the friction and wear behaviors of six waxes including four commercial waxes and two soybean oil-based wax developed in our lab for bulk coating on cardboard. The effect of normal load, sliding velocity, and environmental temperature was evaluated. The friction coefficient of different waxes varies with sliding conditions. Higher normal load, sliding velocity, and environmental temperature resulted in significantly greater wear loss. Crystalline morphology and crystallinity were affected by environmental temperature, and they correlate to the variations in friction coefficient and wear loss of these materials. Overall, the Estercoat developed in our lab had comparable frictional properties and much less wear than paraffin wax under tested conditions and can be a good substitute for paraffin wax.
We study the evaporation dynamics of multiple water droplets deposited in ordered arrays or randomly distributed (sprayed) on superhydrophobic substrates (SHP) and smooth silicone wafers (SW). The evaluation of mass of the droplets as a function of time shows a power-law behavior with exponent 3/2, and from the prefactor of the power-law an evaporation rate can be determined. We find that the evaporation rate on a SHP surface is slower than a normal surface for both single droplet and collection of droplets. By dividing a large droplet into more smaller ones, the evaporation rate increases and the difference between the evaporation rates on SHP and SW surfaces becomes higher. The evaporation rates depend also on the distance between the droplets and increase with increasing this distance.
Objective: To investigate the learning curve of robot-assisted laparoscopy in early stage cervical cancer and quantify impact on oncological outcomes. Design: Observational cohort study. Setting: Tertiary referral centre with one surgical team. Population: All early stage cervical cancer patients treated consecutively with robot-assisted laparoscopy between 2007 and 2017. Methods: With multivariate risk-adjusted cumulative sum analysis (RA-CUSUM), we assessed the learning curve of robot-assisted laparoscopy of a single surgical team based on cervical cancer recurrence. Subsequently, a survival analysis was conducted comparing oncological outcomes of patients treated during different phases of the learning curve. Main Outcome Measures: Surgical proficiency based on recurrence, survival rates in the different learning phases. Results: 165 cervical cancers patients were operated by robot-assisted laparoscopy, with a median follow-up of 57 months (range 3-132 months). The RA-CUSUM analysis demonstrated two phases of the learning curve: a learning phase of 61 procedures (group 1) and an experienced phase representing the 104 procedures thereafter (group 2). The 5-year disease free survival was 80.2% in group 1 and 91.1% in group 2 (P = 0.040). Both the 5-year disease-specific survival and overall survival significantly increased after the learning phase. Conclusion: The learning phase of robot-assisted laparoscopy in early stage cervical cancer in this institutional cohort is at least 61 procedures, with higher survival rates in the patients treated thereafter. The learning curve of robot-assisted laparoscopy affects oncological outcomes and warrants more attention in the design of future studies. Funding: None. Keywords: Cervical cancer, robot-assisted laparoscopy, learning curve, RA-CUSUM, recurrence, survival.
References1. Ravi, K.; Gunawardana, S.; Ravi, K.; Abeywickrema, M.; Davies, M.; Tough, E. et al. Why stillbirth deserves a place on the medical school curriculum: Stillbirth-related teaching in UK medical schools. BJOG. 2020;127(3):414.2. Frøen, J. E.; Heazell, A.E P.; Flenady, V.; de Bernis, L.; Kinney, M. V.; Blencowe, H. et al. The Lancet Ending Preventable Stillbirths Study Group. Ending preventable stillbirths: an executive summary for The Lancet’s series. Lancet [Internet]. 2016 18 May 2019. Available from: https://www.thelancet.com/pb/assets/raw/Lancet/stories/series/stillbirths2016-exec-summ.pdf.3. UK Foundation Programme Office. F2 Career Destinations Report. 2018.4. Burden, C.; Bradley, S.; Storey, C.; Ellis, A.; Heazell, A.E.P.; Downe, S. et al. From grief, guilt pain and stigma to hope and pride - a systematic review and meta-analysis of mixed-method research of the psychosocial impact of stillbirth. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2016;16:9.—————————————————————————————————————————Funding Support: No specific funding received.—————————————————————————————————————————Statement of Contribution to Authorship: E.C. and D.S. conceived the idea for the Commentary. E.C. performed the literature review and wrote the initial version of the manuscript. D.S. supervised the writing of the manuscript and provided critical feedback prior to submission of the final version.—————————————————————————————————————————Disclosure of Interests: D.S. is an Executive Scientific Editor for BJOG. Otherwise the authors declare that they have no known competing interests or personal relationships that could have influenced the work reported in this paper.—————————————————————————————————————————
Microbial biomass (MB) production and turnover strongly affect soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation. Microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE) and MB turnover in paddy soil were determined using a novel substrate-independent H218O labeling approach and the effect of long-term fertilization with mineral (NPK) or combined (NPK+OM (manure)) amendments in 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm depths were investigated. Long-term fertilization increased microbial C uptake, CUE, and growth rates, and all indexes were the highest in the NPK+OM treatment. The CUE ranged between 0.07 and 0.23 and showed variable behavior with depth: it reduced in the control treatment, indicating that more C was allocated to energy production than biomass growth, and increased in fertilized soils, showing the shift of C usage for biomass growth. The highest CUE was observed at 20-30 cm in NPK and NPK+OM and indicated that microorganisms overcome the nutrient deficiency in deep soil layers by keeping high C uptake rates at a constant CUE. MBC turnover was more rapid in NPK (10-70 d) and NPK+OM (40-65 d) compared to control (80 d) and intensified with the depth. These findings highlight that under long-term fertilization MB turnover can be controlled by CUE. These shifts in the strategies of microorganisms functioning can explain the accumulation of SOC in heavily fertilized paddy soils.
Excessive salts in soil inhibit enzyme activity, decrease microbial growth and constrain biochemical functioning, which could be alleviated by soil management and fertilization. However, the effect of consecutive chemical fertilizer on soil bacterial community structure under saline environment is poorly understood. Here, a field randomized block design under four nitrogen fertilization rates (0, 150, 300, and 450 kg N hm-2 y-1) was conducted on coastal salt-affected Fluvo-aquic soil. Effect of nitrogen fertilization rates on soil properties and bacterial community was characterized using Illumina Miseq sequencing for 16S rRNA gene. Results indicated that consecutive chemical N fertilization accelerated the improvement of soil chemical and microbial properties under the paddy rice - winter wheat rotation. Soil bacterial community well responded to the nitrogen fertilization and community richness and diversity increased with the nitrogen rates. Predominant bacterial phyla belonged to Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Planctomycetes, whereas Deltaproteobacteria, Anaerolineae, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Planctomycetia were dominant bacterial classes. Increasing nitrogen fertilization resulted in an elevation in the relative abundance of classes Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Planctomycetia and Nitrospira, and a decline in Anaerolineae, Acidobacteria_Gp6, Cytophagia, Bacilli and Acidobacteria_Gp10. Clear separations in the bacterial communities at class level were observed under different nitrogen fertilization rates. Community structure of classes Alphaproteobacteria, Planctomycetia and Nitrospira was significantly influenced by potential nitrification rate (PNR), and community structure of class Actinobacteria was significantly influenced by carbon mineralization rate (CMR). The results demonstrated that nitrogen fertilization improved nutrients and metabolic activities to more suitable bacterial microhabitats for saline soil.
Even though friction stir welding (FSW) has been shown to produce high performing butt-joints, stress concentration at the weld edges in overlap FSW significantly reduces the performance of these joints. By combining FSW and adhesive bonding into a friction stir (FS) weld-bonding, joint mechanical performance is greatly improved. Quasi-static and fatigue strength of the proposed FS weld-bonding joints was assessed and benchmarked against overlap FSW and adhesive bonding. The characterization of the structural adhesive is also presented, including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), as well as mechanical characterization with curing temperature. A small process parameter study was made to select proper FSW parameters for AA6082-T6 overlap FSW and FS weld-bonded joints. The adhesive degradation temperature (357ºC) was found to be higher than reported temperatures in the adhesive during welding of FS weld-bonding joints. Higher curing temperatures were found to lead to increased strength while decreasing ductility of the adhesive. The addition of adhesive bonding to the overlap FSW to produce FS weld-bonding resulted in a significant increase in quasi-static and fatigue strength, achieving 79.9% of the fatigue strength of adhesive bonded joints at 106 cycles, while FSW had 41.6%.
Rational, aims and objectives: This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of using insulin pen in diabetes and determine the related factors to the KAP, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and glycemic control status. Methods: In our descriptive study, 148 patients with diabetes were interviewed by 16-item questions on knowledge and 8 questions on attitude, and were asked to present the insulin pen injection technique with a sample insulin pen. Results: Proportions of patient having a good knowledge, positive attitude, and good practice were 45.9%, 78.4%, and 44.6%, respectively. The three most incorrect steps were skipping to prime pen needle (90.9%), not removing the used needle from the pen after using (87.8), and not holding for specific count time before withdrawal of pen needle from skin (50.7%). Patients having duration of insulin one year or more had better knowledge (p=0.025), more positive attitude (p=0.017), and better practice of insulin (p=0.042). Patients using insulin combined with oral diabetic medications or having history of using insulin vials had more positive attitude of insulin role (0.038). Frequency of having good knowledge was statistically significantly higher in participants who received counseling from health professionals previously (p=0.001). The study also found a positive correlation between good knowledge of patients and good practical skills (p<0.001). Patients with poor practice of insulin were more likely to have ADRs at the injection sites (p = 0.013). The worse knowledge of patients was significant related to the higher risk of hypoglycemia (p=0.001). KAP levels did not correlate with glycemic control status. Conclusions: Positive attitude in patients was recorded at a significant rate; however, knowledge and practice needs improvement. This study was helpful to shape the patient education and target specific patients for education.
Charged clay surfaces can impact the storage and mobility of hydrocarbon and water mixtures. Here, we use equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) and nonequilibrium MD simulations to investigate hydrocarbon-water mixtures and their transport in slit-shaped illite nanopores. We construct two illite pore models with different surface chemistries: potassium-hydroxyl (PH) and hydroxyl-hydroxyl (HH) structures. In HH nanopore, we observe water adsorption on the clay surfaces. In PH nanopores, however, we observe the formation of water bridges because of the existence of a local, long-range electric field. Our NEMD simulations demonstrate that the velocity profiles across the pore depends strongly on water concentration, pore width and the presence or absence of the water bridge. This fundamental study provides a theoretical basis for understanding nanofluidics with charged surfaces and can be applied in such as biological processes, chemical and physical fields, and the oil and gas extraction in clay-rich formations.
Competitive interactions between distantly related clades could cause complementary diversity patterns of these clades over large spatial scales. One such example might be ants and birds in the eastern Himalaya; ants are very common at low elevations but almost absent at mid-elevations where the abundance of other arthropods and insectivorous bird diversity peaks. Here, we ask if ants at low elevations could compete with birds for arthropod prey. Specifically, we studied the impact of the Asian weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina), a common aggressive ant at low elevations. Diet analysis using molecular methods demonstrate extensive diet overlap between weaver ants and songbirds at both low and mid-elevations. Trees without weaver ants have greater non-ant arthropod abundance and leaf damage. Experimental removal of weaver ants results in an increase in the abundance of non-ant arthropods. Notably, numbers of Coleoptera and Lepidoptera were most affected by removal experiments and were prominent components of both bird and weaver ant diets. Our results suggest that songbirds and weaver ants might potentially compete with each other for arthropod prey at low elevations, thereby contributing to lower insectivorous bird diversity at low elevations in eastern Himalaya. Competition with ants may shape vertebrate diversity patterns across broad biodiversity gradients.
1. Bitterlings are small freshwater fish that use long ovipositors to place eggs in host mussels and have morphological adaptations to increase larval survival. The most well-known adaptations are the minute tubercles on the skin surface of larvae, which are developed in early-stage larvae with weak swimming ability and disappear in free-swimming larvae before they leave the host mussel. 2. In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of the developmental stages of Rhodeus pseudosericeus larvae, their morphological and physiological characteristics, their migration inside mussels, and the development of minute tubercle are presented as direct evidence of the morphological function of the minute tubercles. These tubercles began to develop 1 day after hatching (formation stage), grew for 2–5 days (growth stage), reached the peak height after 6–7 days (peak stage), abruptly reduced in height after 8–10 days (abrupt reduction stage), and went through a final gradual reduction (reduction stage) until completely disappearing 27 days after hatching (disappearance stage). 3. The larvae remained in the mussels’ interlamellar space of the gill demibranchs until 10 days after hatching, and began to migrate to mussels’ suprabranchial cavity 11 days after hatching. At this time, the larvae had clear components of heart rate and caudal fin began to develop. At 24 days after hatching, the minute tubercles had almost disappeared, and some individuals were observed swimming out of the mussels. 4. The experiment results herein presented prove that the minute tubercles are a first direct evidence that the bitterling larvae are morphologically adapted to prevent premature ejection from the mussel.
Resource polymorphism is a ubiquitous phenomenon in vertebrates and may represent a critical intermediate stage in speciation. Freshwater lakes in high-altitude areas represent a natural system for understanding resource polymorphism in fishes in diverse lacustrine environments and a few co-distributed species. We report resource polymorphism in a cyprinid fish, Schizopygopsis thermalis, in Lake Amdo Tsonak Co, a headwater lake in the upper Salween River system. Two morphs, planktivorous and benthivorous, were identified according to geometric morphological and traditional linear traits. The planktivorous morph exhibits a longer head and lower jaw, larger asymptotic standard length (L∞), lower growth rate (k) and higher growth performance index (φ) than the benthivorous morph. With respect to descriptive traits, the planktivorous morph possesses a terminal mouth and a highly developed mucus cavity in the cheek and chin, while the benthivorous morph is characterized by an inferiorly positioned mouth with a sharpened horny edge on the lower jaw. Our results indicate that distinct pelagic-benthic resources and low interspecific competition in the lake drove the initial differentiation of the two morphs and that partial spatial reproductive isolation might maintain and reinforce the differences between them.
Tropical forests are experiencing unprecedented high temperature conditions due to climate change that could limit their photosynthetic functions. We studied the high temperature sensitivity of photosynthesis in a rainforest site in southern Amazonia, where some of the highest temperatures and most rapid warming in the Tropics have been recorded. The quantum yield (Fv/Fm) of photosystem II was measured in seven dominant tree species using leaf discs exposed to varying levels of heat stress. T50 was calculated as the temperature at which Fv/Fm) was half the maximum value. T5 is defined as the breakpoint temperature, at which Fv/Fm) decline was initiated. Leaf thermotolerance in the rapidly warming Southern Amazonia was the highest recorded for forest tree species globally. T50 and T5 varied between species, with one mid storey species, Amaioua guianensis, exhibiting particularly high T50 and T5 values. While the T50 values of the species sampled were several degrees above the maximum air temperatures experienced in southern Amazonia, the T5 values of several species are now exceeded under present-day maximum air temperatures.
We consider a 2-D study of a plate with finite thickness and infinite extent. The upper plate surface is considered traction free and subjected to an axisymmetric heating. The lower surface is thermally insulated and layed on a rigid foundation. A cylindrical heat source affects the plate. This problem is relevant to the generalized thermoelasticity theory with one relaxation time. Laplace and Hankel transforms are considered. We use Inverse Hankel and Laplace transforms numerically. All related functions are showed graphically.