Objective: To present an alternative surgical technique in treating cases of Chiari I Malformation with mild-to-moderate syringomyelia after decompressive suboccipital craniectomy: incising only the outer layer of the dura mater, then dissecting it from the inner layer without opening the latter. Methods and Results: We utilized this technique in a short series of three cases who were admitted in our department for mild symptoms such as intermittent headache and dissociated sensory loss in the upper limbs, caused by a Chiari Malformation Type I. The patients were placed in the sitting position. We performed a reduced median suboccipital craniectomy and resection of the posterior arch of C1 adapted to the level of tonsil descent, from a limited superior half to a complete resection. Afterwards, we incised the outer dural layer, while sparing the inner one. Using a fine dissector, we then split apart the outer and inner layers to the margin of the craniectomy. Through the transparency of the inner layer and the arachnoid, the cerebellum and the medulla were visible and pulsating. An autologous fascia duraplasty was then performed. The postoperative course was favorable in all cases, patients being discharged without any deficits and with complete symptom resolution. Conclusions: Interlayer dural split technique can be used effectively in treating symptomatic cases of type I Chiari malformation in adults, with mild-to-moderate syringomyelia. It is less invasive than opening the dura and possibly more effective than decompressive craniectomy and C1 laminectomy alone. This technique must be validated in a larger case-control series.
Purpose: The FDA-issued PLATO trial dataset revealed that some primary deaths causes (PDC) were inaccurately reported favoring ticagrelor. However, the PLATO Investigators operated the shorter death list of uncertain quality. We compared if PDC match when trial fatalities were reported to the FDA and by the PLATO investigators. Method: The FDA list contains precisely detailed 938 PLATO deaths, while shorter investigators dataset consists of 905 deaths. We matched 4 vascular (sudden, post-MI, heart failure and stroke), and 3 non-vascular (cancer, sepsis and suicide) PDC between death lists. Results: There were more sudden deaths in the shorter list than in the FDA dataset (161 vs.138; p<0.03), post-AMI (373 vs.178; p<0.001) but fewer heart failure deaths (73 vs.109; p=0.02). Stroke numbers match well (39 vs. 37; p=NS) with only 2 ticagrelor cases removed. Cancer matched well (32 vs.31; p=NS), and sepsis cases were identical (30 vs. 30; P=NS). However, 2 extra clopidogrel suicides in the shorter list are impossible to comprehend. Conclusions: The PLATO trial PDC were mismatched between FDA and Investigators sets. We are kindly asking the ticagrelor sponsor or/and concerned PLATO Investigators to clarify the PDC dataset match.
Our analysis as described in this research letter highlights the fact that age outweighs many other factors in people with T2DM in relation to mortality from SARS-CoV-2 virus, once infected. This fact should be taken into account in relation to the vaccination programme against coronavirus-19 in people with T2DM in the UK and elsewhere.
Objectives: In Wilms Tumor (WT) secondary malignancies caused by the side effects of intensive treatments remain one of the important problems. Therefore, there is a need for new studies to identify low- and high-risk groups for WT and to improve the treatment regimens of children in the low-risk group. Therefore, in our study, we aimed to determine the prognostic significance of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) biomarker in WT. Materials and Methods: Our study included 24 patients diagnosed with WT between January 2010 and December 2019. The correlation between COX-2 expression and significant prognostic parameters was investigated by studying COX-2 antibody using the immunohistochemical method. Results: COX-2 expression was observed in 22 of the patients, and the expression was more evident especially in the epithelial component. There was no significant correlation between COX-2 positivity and prognostic parameters. Conclusions: In our study, no significant relationship was found between significant prognostic parameters and COX-2 expression. We think that the COX-2 pathway is effective during the development phase of WT, since COX-2 expression was observed in almost all patients, therefore it may be beneficial to add COX-2 inhibitors to the treatment, and that a sufficient number of studies should be conducted in this respect.
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of ablation therapy in our clinic for the treatment of patients with small renal mass Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the technic and follow-up data of 30 patients with 36 tumors who underwent Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) and Microwave Ablation (MWA) in our clinic. Demographic data, ablation type, tumor characteristics, peroperative and postoperative complications and treatment success of the patients were evaluated. Results: A total of 36 tumors who underwent ablation treatments, 23 were treated with RFA, 13 with MWA. The mean tumor size was 28.9 ± 6.92 mm in RFA and 29.3 ± 7.70 mm in MWA. 12 (52.1%) of the RFA procedures were applied to the right kidney while 11 (47.8%) were applied to the left kidney. 6 (46.1%) of the MWA procedures were performed on the right kidney and 7 (53.8%) on the left kidney. Of the 36 tumors, 4 (11.1%) were located central and 32 (88.8%) were peripheral. Complications occurred in 2 patients. In one of these patients, acute renal failure and urea creatinine were found to be elevated. In the other patient, local pain was found in the ablation side and minor bleeding was detected at the ablation site in USG. The mean follow-up period was 49.6 ± 24.7 months in patients with RFA and mean follow-up was 16 ± 8,05 months in MWA treatments. The overall success in MWA administration was calculated as 76.9%, while the overall success in RFA was 80%. Conclusion: Long-term oncologic efficacy of RFA appears to be successful in the treatment of T1a renal carcinomas. Further studies can be conducted to elucidate the influence of MWA on long-term oncological outcomes.
Aims Serum biomarkers have a potential role in the risk stratification of patients with heart valve disease and may help determine the optimal timing of intervention. Much of the published literature relates to biomarker sampling in a resting state, but the relationship of exercise biomarkers is less well described. We performed a systematic review to examine the significance of exercise natriuretic peptides on echocardiographic variables and cardiovascular events, in valvular heart disease. Methods A search for studies that assessed exercise biomarkers in patients with moderate to severe valve lesions was performed. We examined the relationship between rest and exercise BNP and also the endpoints of symptoms, haemodynamic or echocardiographic variables and clinical outcomes. Results 11 prospective studies were identified (844 participants). 61% were male and the mean age was 55.2 ± 9.6 years. The majority of the blood samples were taken at baseline and within 3 minutes of stopping exercise. There was a significant increase in exercise BNP compared with rest, in patients with aortic stenosis, mitral regurgitation and mitral stenosis. Elevated exercise BNP levels correlated with mean gradient and left atrial area, and there was a relationship between a higher exercise BNP and a blunted blood pressure response, in aortic stenosis. Furthermore, exercise BNP was independently associated with cardiac events, over and above resting values, in patients with mitral regurgitation and aortic stenosis. Conclusions The results suggesting that exercise natriuretic peptide levels may have additive prognostic importance over resting levels, as well as demographic and echocardiographic data.
Background. The use of transcutaneous near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the monitoring of the perfusion of renal allografts in paediatric population has been proposed in the last years. This device might detect early decrease in allograft oxygenation allowing prompt detection of vascular complications. Methods. A systematic review of literature about the use of transcutaneous NIRS in monitoring allograft perfusion was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. Results. The authors screened 1313 papers. The search yielded five pertinent articles. Three of them reported the experience of NIRS in kidney transplantation, for a total of 53 paediatric patients and 50 adults. In these studies, NIRS measurements was significantly related to serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (u-NGAL), serum lactate, resistive index assessed by doppler-ultrasonography and systolic blood pressure. In the paediatric studies no vascular complications were encountered. Conclusions. Preliminary studies have related NIRS monitoring to renal allograft perfusion and function. Further investigation is needed to establish the normal range of NIRS values for renal allografts and the factors influencing NIRS monitoring.
Eltrombopag is a highly effective treatment for immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Cases of durable remission after the discontinuation of eltrombopag in adult ITP have recently been reported; however, the frequency and mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain unknown. In the present study, we examined the phenotypes of lymphocytes in ITP to clarify whether they predict outcomes after the discontinuation of eltrombopag. We examined 56 adult newly diagnosed ITP patients treated with eltrombopag after a median time from diagnosis of 48 months. Among the 38 patients who achieved complete remission, eltrombopag was discontinued in 26. Among the 26 patients, 12 (46.2%) had an immediate relapse after discontinuing eltrombopag and 16 (53.8%) showed sustained response without additional ITP therapy, despite discontinuing eltrombopag, with a median follow-up of 52 months. No significant differences were observed in platelets, the median duration of eltrombopag, the absolute number of T, B, and NK cells at the initiation of eltrombopag between patients who sustained response and those who relapsed after discontinuing eltrombopag. However, the number of B and NK cells at the discontinuation of eltrombopag was higher in patients who sustained response than in those who relapsed (p=0.022 and p=0.012, respectively). The present results indicate that the absolute number of B (≥ 0.20 x 109/L) and NK (≥ 0.36 x 109/L) cells at the discontinuation of eltrombopag contributes to the prediction of outcomes.
Our findings illustrate the widespread collateral impact of implementing measures to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 in people with, or being investigated for diabetes mellitus (DM). Ironically, failure to focus of the wider implications for people with DM and other groups with long-term conditions, may place them at increased risk of poor outcomes from SARS-CoV-2 infection itself, irrespective of the implications for their longer-term health prospects.
ABSTRACT Objective: We aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of intraductal carcinoma in radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens and predictive value of IDC-P for biochemical recurrence and adjuvant therapy decision. Method: Patients who underwent RP between 2000-2014 with final pathological stage pT3a and negative surgical margins (Group 1, n=35) and pT2 with positive surgical margins (Group 2, n=32) were included. RP specimens were re-evaluated for the presence of IDC-P component and other prognostic factors. In both groups, prognostic factors were compared according to the presence of IDC-P and biochemical recurrence status. Results: In group 1, IDC-P was detected in 5 cases and biochemical recurrence was detected in 3 cases. Patients with IDC-P showed significantly higher biochemical recurrence than those without IDC-P (p=0.002). In univariate analysis, IDC-P was found to be significantly associated with worse progression free survival (p<0.001). In group 2, IDC-P was detected in 4 cases and biochemical recurrence was detected in 10 cases. Also, tumor volume was significantly higher in patients with IDC-P than those without IDC-P (p=0.02). IDC-P was also significantly associated with worse progression free survival in group 2 (p=0.033). Conclusions: In both groups, IDC-P is a prognostic factor for progression free survival and / or biochemical recurrence. Especially in these patients, presence of IDC-P might be helpful for postoperative adjuvant therapy management decision. Keywords: radical prostatectomy, intraductal carcinoma of prostate (IDC-P), prostate cancer, biochemical recurrence, progression free survival.
Aims:Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affected by many factors. We aimed to show the impact of the metabolic syndrome (MeTS) on male sexual function based on VAI and the impact of increased levels of the VAI was investigated in patients with ED among the patients with and without MeTS. Methods:Participants who met MeTS criteria (Group 1, n=96) and without MeTS (Group 2, n=189) were included in this cross-sectional study. The MeTS diagnosis was made in the presence of at least three of the following criteria: serum glucose level higher than 100 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol level below 40 mg/dl, triglyceride level greater than 150 mg/dl, waist circumference greater than 102 cm and blood pressure greater than 130/85 mmHg. Demographic data were recorded; biochemical and hormonal tests were measured. Erectile and other sexual function scores were recorded. The VAI was calculated using the [(WC/39.68)+(1.88xMI)]xTG/1.03x1.31/HDL formula. Results:Mean age, smoking volume, T and T/E2 ratios of the groups were similar (p>0.05). Mean VAI was two-fold higher in patients in Group 1 (p<0.001) and erectile function score was lower in Group 1 than Group 2 (p=0.001). Other sexual function scores were similar (p>0.05). The METS was associated with an increased risk of ED (p=0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that each integer increase of the VAI was associated with a 1.4-fold increased risk of ED (p<0.001). Higher T values were associated with a better erectile function (p=0.03). For the VAI=4.33, receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed a sensitivity of 89.6 % and specificity of 57.7 %. Conclusion:Compared to non-MeTS, the presence of MeTS has emerged as a risk factor for patients with ED with high VAI levels while the other sexual functions are preserved. Management of ED patients with MeTS should cover a comprehensive metabolic and endocrinological evaluation in addition to andrological work up.
Introduction: Prevalence of insomnia is higher in females and increases with higher age. Besides primary insomnia, comorbid sleep disorders are also common, accompanying different conditions. Considering the possible adverse effects of commonly used drugs to promote sleep, a nonpharmacologic approach should be preferred in most cases. Although generally considered first-line treatment, the nonpharmacologic approach is often underestimated by both patients and physicians. Objective: To provide primary care physicians an up-to-date approach to the nonpharmacologic treatment of insomnia. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched for relevant articles about the nonpharmacologic treatment of insomnia up to December 2020. We restricted our search only to articles written in English. Main Message: Most patients presenting with sleep disorder symptoms can be effectively managed in the primary care setting. Primary care physicians may use pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches, while the latter should be generally considered first-line treatment. A primary care physician may opt to refer the patient to a sleep medicine specialist for refractory cases. Conclusions: This paper provides an overview of current recommendations and up-to-date evidence for the nonpharmacologic treatment of insomnia. This article emphasizes the importance of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia, likewise, exercise and relaxation techniques. Complementary and alternative approaches are also covered.
Objectives: To externally validate and compare Resorlu-Unsal stone score(RUSS), modified Seoul National University Renal Stone Complexity Score(S-ReSC), Ito’s nomogram and R.I.R.S. scoring systems for predicting capabilities of both the stone-free status and complications in a multi-institutional study. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 949 patients who were underwent flexible ureterorenoscopy (f-URS) and laser lithotripsy for renal stones in two institutions between March-2015 and June-2020. The RUSS, modified S-ReSC, Ito’s nomogram and R.I.R.S. scores were calculated for each patient by same surgeon on imaging methods. Results were compared for their predictive capability of stone-free status and complications. Results: Of 949 patients 603 were male and 346 were female with a mean age of 47.2±14.3 (range 2-84years). Mean stone burden was 102.6±42.2 (48-270mm2). All nomograms predicted stone-free status (AUC were 0.689, 0.657, 0.303 and 0.690, respectively). All four scoring systems predicted complications with AUC values of 0.689, 0.646, 0.286 and 0.664 for RUSS, modified S-ReSC, Ito’s nomogram, R.I.R.S., respectively. Although all scoring systems were able to predict complications only Ito’s nomogram was able to predict Clavien ≥2 complications. Conclusion: All four scoring systems (RUSS, modified S-ReSC, Ito’s nomogram and R.I.R.S.) could predict stone-free status after f-URS, however the AUC values are not satisfactory in our large patient cohort. Although these scoring systems were not developed for predicting post-operative complications, they were associated with complications in our study. However, these four scoring systems have some significant limitations. The ideal scoring system is yet to be developed.
Abstract Aims of the study: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of testosterone deficiency on cognitive functions in metastatic prostate cancer patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Methods: In this multicentric prospective study, 65 metastatic prostate cancer patients were evaluated. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. Cognitive functions were assessed using the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the California Verbal Learning Test Second Edition, the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised, and the Trail Making Test. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory. Cognitive functions and depressive symptoms were recorded before the androgen deprivation therapy and at the 3- and 6-month follow ups. Results: At the basal cognitive assessment, the mean Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the California Verbal Learning Test Second Edition, the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised scores were 25.84 ± 17.54, 32.68 ± 10.60, and 17.63 ± 11.23, respectively, and the mean time for the Trail Making Test was 221.56 ± 92.44 s., and were similar at the 3-month, and 6-month controls (p > 0.05). The mean pretreatment, third and sixth month testosterone levels were 381.40 ± 157.53 ng/dL, 21.61 ± 9.09 ng/dL, and 12.25 ± 6.45 ng/dL (p < 0.05), and the total PSA levels were 46.46 ± 37.83 ng/mL, 1.41 ± 3.31 ng/mL, and 0.08 ± 0.14 ng/mL (p < 0.05), respectively. Conclusion: The ADT in patients with metastatic prostate cancer does not affect patients’ cognitive functions and depressive symptoms. However, further prospective randomized studies with higher cohorts and longer follow up periods are needed.
Background: Overweight, obesity and lack of sleep quality as inflammatory states are the common problems among college students and the Association of Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) with these problems among this population is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of the DII with obesity and sleep quality among Iranian female students. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in 249 female college students. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) was calculated using a valid and reliable 147-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). To assess sleep quality, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used. Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) were estimated for anthropometric indices and sleep quality according to DII score. Linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between DII score with sleep and anthropometric indices. Results: There was a significant association evident between DII and sleep quality(> 5 is considered as poor quality of sleep); i.e., the odds ratios between DII quartile 2 vs 1 (unadjusted model: OR= 0.33 (CI: 0.14-0.74), P for trend =0.002; model 1: the fully adjusted OR= 0.31(CI: 0.12-0.78), P for trend = 0.005; model 2:OR=0.30 (CI:0.12-0.78), P for trend = 0.005) to quartile 4(unadjusted model: OR= 1.13(CI: 0.45-2.80); model 1: OR= 1.11(CI: 0.44-2.79); model 2:OR=1.13(CI:0.44-2.87), P for trend = 0.005). Also, odds ratios increased significantly from quartile 2 to quartile 4 in all models for DII and sleep quality. According to the continuous score of DII, there was a significant positive association between DII and sleep quality in all 3 models: unadjusted, model 1, and model 2 (OR= 1.21 (CI: 1.05-1.40), OR= 1.21 (CI: 1.03-1.43), and OR= 1.22 (CI: 1.03-1.44), respectively. Conclusions: In this study, after removing the effect of confounding factors, participants in the highest quartile of DII score had significantly higher PSQI global score.
Aim Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is known as one of the most effective treatment methods in plantar fasciitis (PF). Low-dye taping, which is the most preferred method of banding treatments, provides an analgesic effect by correcting biomechanics. It was aimed to compare the efficacy of adjuvant low-dye kinesio-taping (KT), sham-taping, or extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) alone in plantar fasciitis (PF). Methods In this double-blind, sham-controlled study, forty-five patients with PF were randomized to 3-group (Group 1: ESWT plus low-dye KT, n=15; Group 2: ESWT plus Sham-taping, n=15; and Group 3: ESWT only, n=15) five-session ESWT were administrated. KT was performed and changed every 1-week for the ESWT sessions in Groups 1 and 2. The main outcome measures were the visual analog scale (VAS) change, the heel tenderness index (HTI), foot function index (FFI). The patients were evaluated at the beginning and end of the treatment and the 4-week follow-up. Results The demographic characteristics and baseline outcomes between groups were similar (p>0.05). VAS and HTI changes were observed in all three groups, there was no difference between groups. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed a significant interaction between the time and the groups in FFI-total (F3.919= 2.607; p=.043). At the 4-week follow-up, when Groups 1 and 2 were evaluated, the lower FFI-total, FFI-disability, and FFI-activity limitation were statistically significant in Group 1 (p=0.027; p=0.026; p=0.029, respectively). When Group 1 and 3 were compared, the decrease in FFI-pain and FFI-activity limitation were significant in Group 1 (p=0.042; p=0.035, respectively). Conclusions Low-dye KT, in addition to ESWT, is more effective than sham-taping and ESWT in pain relief and foot function improvement due to PF at a 4-week follow-up.
Purpose: To investigate the prediction values of the preoperative NLR, LMR, PLR, MPV, RDW for recurrence and progression of patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Methods: In this prospective study, 94 consecutive patients, newly diagnosed with NMIBC between July 2017 - August 2018 were included. The blood samples were collected from patients before transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURB) and NLR, LMR, PLR, RDW, MPV values were calculated. The effect of these preoperative inflammatory parameters and other clinicopathological parameters on recurrence and progression rates were evaluated. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to identify significant prognostic variables. Results: The mean follow-up was 11 ± 6.4 months. Recurrence was observed in 35.1% and progression was detected in 7.4% of the patients. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was statistically significantly associated with both recurrence (p = 0.01) and progression (p = 0.035) whereas lymphocyte-monocyte ratio was only associated with recurrence (p = 0.038). In the survival analyses, the relationship between recurrence and LMR was confirmed in both univariate (p = 0.021) and multivariate (p = 0.022) analyses. The relationship between NLR and recurrence was confirmed in univariate analysis (p = 0.019), however in multivariate analysis was found to be statistically insignificant (p = 0.051). Conclusions: Lymphocyte-monocyte ratio might be an easy obtainable, non-invasive and cost-effective method for predicting recurrence of disease in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.