SUMMARY The 2013-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic is caused by the Makona variant of Ebola virus (EBOV). Early in the epidemic, genome sequencing provided insights into virus evolution and transmission, and offered important information for outbreak response. Here we analyze sequences from 232 patients sampled over 7 months in Sierra Leone, along with 86 previously released genomes from earlier in the epidemic. We confirm sustained human-to-human transmission within Sierra Leone and find no evidence for import or export of EBOV across national borders after its initial introduction. Using high-depth replicate sequencing, we observe both host-to-host transmission and recurrent emergence of intrahost genetic variants. We trace the increasing impact of purifying selection in suppressing the accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations over time. Finally, we note changes in the mucin-like domain of EBOV glycoprotein that merit further investigation. These findings clarify the movement of EBOV within the region and describe viral evolution during prolonged human-to-human transmission.
ABSTRACT We examined the relationship between distance, accuracy, and time in the firing of a paintball marker. Participants were asked to fire 5 paintballs at targets at 3 different distances and the time between the first and last shot was recorded. Accuracy was measured by taking the distance between the mark and the centre of the target. It was hypothesized that accuracy would increase as distance decreased and that shooting time would decrease as distance decreased. The difference between mean accuracy at 10 and 30 metres was found to be 67.77 cm. The difference between the mean shooting time at 10 and 30 metres was found to be 2.493 seconds. These were the most pronounced differences in the means which allowed us to confirm our alternate hypothesis. The study also briefly examined the effects of experience on speed and accuracy.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This project would not have been possible without the support of the AER201 teaching staff and our colleagues in second year Engineering Science. In particular, we would like to recognize the following individuals for their contribution to our project. Professor M. R. Emami for coordinating AER201 and providing us with the advice and knowledge we needed to see the project through. Rene Rail-Ip for his guidance and feedback, and the humour and conversation to keep us going through the 5 hour labs. Charles Lin for always opening the lab for us so we never had to wait an hour to take our robot home on Fridays. Rahul Chandan, Adrian Esser and Rui Janson for allowing us to work on their kitchen table. Farhang Talan for lending us his devbugger and 40-pin cable on demo day, when we were not sure ours was working. Microchip Technology Inc. and Texas Instruments for providing the documentation and technology we needed to build the robot. Bwian the cockatiel for being a light in dark places, when all other [candle]lights went out.