Figure 1 spirometry

Lucas Salles-Dias

and 13 more

Background: Asthmatic children present variable degrees of airway inflammation, remodeling and resistance, which correlates with disease control and severity. Chronic inflammatory process of the airways triggers airway remodeling, which reflects the degree of airway resistance. Pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic mediators are centrally involved in this process. This study has investigated for the first time, whether the levels of pulmonary and systemic pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic mediators present correlation with the resistance of respiratory system and of proximal and distal airways. Methods: 24 asthmatic children (persistent mild and moderate) and 24 non-asthmatic children (both between 6-13 years old) were evaluated for anthropometric characteristics, lung function and mechanics, pulmonary and systemic immune response. Results: Asthmatic children showed an increased number of blood eosinophils (p<0.04), basophils (p<0.04), monocytes (p<0.002) and lymphocytes (p<0.03). In addition, asthmatic children showed an impaired lung function, as demonstrated by FEV1%pred. (p<0.0005) and FEV1/FVC (p<0.004), decreased total resistance of respiratory system (R5Hz; p<0.009), increased resistance of proximal airways (R20Hz; p<0.02), increased elastance (Z5Hz; p<0.02) and increased reactance (X5Hz; p<0.002). Moreover, the following inflammatory factors were significantly higher in asthmatic than non-asthmatic children: GM-CSF in the breath condensate (BC) (p<0.0001) and in the serum (p<0.0001); TGF-beta in the BC (p<0.0001) and in the serum (p<0.004); IL-5 in the BC (p<0.02) and in the serum (p<0.01); IL-4 in the serum (p<0.0002). Conclusions: Impulse oscillometry is a sensitive method to detect airway resistance in asthmatic children, reflecting airway remodeling, an event followed by increased levels of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic mediators.
Figure 1 spirometry

Lucas Salles-Dias

and 13 more

Background: Asthmatic children present variable degrees of airway inflammation, remodeling and resistance, which correlates with disease control and severity. Chronic inflammatory process of the airways triggers airway remodeling, which reflects the degree of airway resistance. Pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic mediators are centrally involved in this process. This study has investigated for the first time, whether the levels of pulmonary and systemic pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic mediators present correlation with the resistance of respiratory system and of proximal and distal airways. Methods: 24 asthmatic children (persistent mild and moderate) and 24 non-asthmatic children (both between 6-13 years old) were evaluated for anthropometric characteristics, lung function and mechanics, pulmonary and systemic immune response. Results: Asthmatic children showed an increased number of blood eosinophils (p<0.04), basophils (p<0.04), monocytes (p<0.002) and lymphocytes (p<0.03). In addition, asthmatic children showed an impaired lung function, as demonstrated by FEV1%pred. (p<0.0005) and FEV1/FVC (p<0.004), decreased total resistance of respiratory system (R5Hz; p<0.009), increased resistance of proximal airways (R20Hz; p<0.02), increased elastance (Z5Hz; p<0.02) and increased reactance (X5Hz; p<0.002). Moreover, the following inflammatory factors were significantly higher in asthmatic than non-asthmatic children: GM-CSF in the breath condensate (BC) (p<0.0001) and in the serum (p<0.0001); TGF-beta in the BC (p<0.0001) and in the serum (p<0.004); IL-5 in the BC (p<0.02) and in the serum (p<0.01); IL-4 in the serum (p<0.0002). Conclusions: Impulse oscillometry is a sensitive method to detect airway resistance in asthmatic children, reflecting airway remodeling, an event followed by increased levels of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic mediators.
Figure 1

Claudia M M Russi

and 11 more

Background: Reduced peripheral and respiratory muscle strength correlates with impaired lung function in COPD, but whether diminishement in peripheral and respiratory muscle strength correlates with lung mechanis is unknown. Aims: To investigate whether spirometric and respiratory and peripheral muscle strength correlates with small airways obstruction evaluated by impulse oscillometry. Methods: Nighteen COPD GOLD II and twenty former smokers’ individuals were evaluated for lung function, lung mechanics, maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure and hand grip strength test. Results: COPD presented reduced FEV1 and FEV1/FVC (p<0.001) compared to former smokers with no changes in FVC. In COPD the FEV1 and FEV1/FVC showed a negative correlation with BMI (P<0.05, R=-0.56 and -0.43, respectively). The total resistance of respiratory system and small airway resistance were reduced in the COPD compared to former smoke group. The COPD individuals showed a negative moderate correlation between FEV1 and impedance (R=-0,664; P<0.01); airway resistance (R=-0,593, P<0.05) and peripheral airway resistance (R=-0,547, P<0.05). The negative correlation was low in COPD individuals for reactance (R=-0,434, P<0.05) and proximal airway resistance (R=-0,480, P<0.05). These correlations were not found in the former smoke group. Hand grip strength measured in the right arm showed a moderate negative correlation with the maximal inspiratory pressure (R=-0,539, P<0.05) in COPD individuals. There was no correlation between PIMax and PEMax with none of the spirometric or oscillometric parameters (p>0.05) in COPD or former smokers’ individuals. Conclusions: Lung mechanics correlate with spirometric parameters in COPD patients but not with respiratory and peripheral muscle strength.
Figure 1 spirometry
Background: The respiratory system changes with age and understanding these changes may help detect and prevent respiratory dysfunctions in the elderly. In addition, although the influence of smoking on lung function is well known, its influence on lung function and mechanics of elderly are unknown. Impulse oscillometry system (IOS) is a technique for measurements of lung mechanics, which don’t need patient effort and a minimal collaboration, beyond to reflect more precisely airway resistance/obstruction and lung tissue elastance than spirometric measurements. Aims: Thus, the present study aimed to investigate whether IOS could be or not be sensible enough to differentiate the effects of smoking in the pulmonary response of non-smokers from smokers’ elderlies. Methods: The present study compared 30 elderlies never smokers (70,96 ± 6,61) with 30 elderlies’ current smokers (69,96 ± 5,94 years old and 35,33 ± 24,93/packs/year tobacco load), without asthma or any other pulmonary disease in terms of lung function and mechanics. Results: The following differences between elderly never smokers versus smokers for spirometric values were found (FVC p<0.02; FEV1 p<0.04; FEV1/FVC p<0.04; PEF p<0.01; MEF25% p<0.02; MEF50% p<0.02; MEF75% p<0.01, IVC p<0.01) and for oscilometric values (Z5hz p<0.03; R5Hz 0.01; R20Hz p<0.04; X5Hz p<0.02), while RFres and R5Hz-R20Hz did not present differences (p>0.05). Conclusions: Impulse oscilometry can detect small airway resistance/obstruction to better differentiate the functional pulmonary alterations among never smokers from smokers’ elderlies.