Aims 1. To systematically review the currently available evidence investigating the association between olfactory dysfunction (OD) and the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). 2. To analyse the prevalence of OD in patients who have tested positive on Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for COVID-19. 2. To perform a meta-analysis of patients presenting with olfactory dysfunction, during the pandemic, and to investigate the Positive Predictive Value for a COOVID-19 positive result in this population. 3. To assess if olfactory dysfunction could be used as a diagnostic marker for COVID-19 positivity and aid public health approaches in tackling the current outbreak. Methods We systematically searched MedLine (PubMed), Embase, Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC), Medrxiv, the Cochrane Library, the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, NIHR Dissemination centre, Clinical Evidence, National Health Service Evidence and the National Institute of Clinical Excellence to identify the current published evidence which associates coronaviridae or similar RNA viruses with anosmia. The initial search identified 157 articles. 145 papers were excluded following application of our exclusion criteria. The 12 remaining articles, that presented evidence on the association between COVID-19 and olfactory dysfunction, were critically analysed. Results OD has been shown to be the strongest predictor of COVID-19 positivity when compared to other symptoms in logistic regression analysis. In patients who had tested positive for COVID-19 there was a prevalence of 62% of OD. In populations of patients who are currently reporting OD there is a positive predictive value of 61% for a positive COVID-19 result. Conclusion Our review has shown that there is already significant evidence which demonstrates an association between OD and the novel coronavirus – COVID-19. It is unclear if this finding is unique to this coronavirus as individual viral phenotypes rarely present in such concentrated large numbers. We have demonstrated that OD is comparatively more predictive for COVID-19 positivity compared to other associated symptoms. We recommend that people who develop OD during the pandemic should be self-isolate and this guidance should be adopted internationally to prevent transmission.
• There was a significant reduction in tonsillitis episodes and antibiotic requirement during the 2-month lockdown period in comparison with 2 months prior to lockdown • Household smoking did not seem to affect tonsillitis frequency in this study • In 70% of cases parents wanted their child’s tonsillectomy during the coronavirus outbreak • Viral exposure is possibly a key factor in the pathophysiology of recurrent tonsillitis • Social distancing measures may reduce the frequency of tonsillitis
• ENT run through posts are extremely competitive requiring a median core surgical interview rank of 27 • Holding additional degrees and transitioning directly from foundation training may improve applicant success • Prior exposure to ENT is variable in successful ST1 applicants • The pilot has been successful in attracting candidates by providing geographical stability and encouraging early engagement with ENT UK • These results will enable development of the pilot programme and provide valuable information for those applying to an ENT run through post
Objectives The primary aim of the study is to provide recommendations for the investigation and management of patients with new onset anosmia during the COVID-19 pandemic Design After undertaking a literature review, we used the RAND/UCLA methodology with a multi-step process to reach consensus about treatment options, onward referral imaging. Setting and participants An expert panel consistent of 15 members was assembled. A literature review was undertaken prior to the study and evidence was summarised for the panellists. Main outcome measures The panel undertook a process of ranking and classifying appropriateness of different investigations and treatment options for new onset anosmia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a 9-point Likert scale, panellists scored whether a treatment was: Not recommended, optional, or recommended. Consensus was achieved when more than 70% of responses fell into the category defined by the mean. Results Consensus was reached on the majority of statements after 2 rounds of ranking. Disagreement meant no recommendation was made regarding one treatment, using Vitamin A Drops. Alpha lipoic acid was not recommended, olfactory training was recommended for all patients with persistent anosmia of more than 2 weeks duration, and oral steroids, steroid rinses and omega 3 supplements may be considered on an individual basis. Recommendations have been made regarding the need for referral and investigation have been made. Conclusion This study identified the appropriateness of olfactory training, different medical treatment options, referral guidelines and imaging for patients with COVID-19 related anosmia. The guideline may evolve as our experience of COVID-19 develops.