Background & Objectives: Testing rates, Case fatality rate (CFR), and Recovery rates (RR) are important parameters for assessing the measures taken in fighting during epidemics and pandemics. The present study was carried out to estimate average tests/day the, % of confirmed cases and compare the CFR and RR during the pandemic of COVID-19 in the states of India after completion of the 1st& 2nd phases of lockdown.Methods: The data were retrieved from accurate databases including the Ministry of Health and family welfare, Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, COVID19 India, and the World Health Organization. States with total cases ≥ 100 were included in the study and 1st phase of lockdown were commenced from 22nd March to 14th April 2020 & 2nd phase of lockdown was from 15th April to 03rd May 2020Results: 32 states have reported COVID 19 as of 3rd May 2020. Average tests/day, RR have improved, and % of confirmed cases, CFR have decreased among Indian states when compared after 1st& 2nd phases of lockdown.Conclusion: Indian states have shown improvement with testing and mitigation measures to fight against COVID 19 as evidenced by a decrease in % of confirmed cases, CFR, and improvement in RR. Apart from that, employing mass testing and epidemiological studies will expand the screening of asymptomatic cases. Also, case studies with a detailed medical history and scoring CFR alongside RR should be adopted in hospitals, which may be helpful in exactly pointing the hotspots of infection.
Abstract:Background: The present study was carried out to examine the case fatality rate (CFR) and recovery rate (RR) during the pandemic of COVID-19 in the states of India as of 14th April, 2020 as these are important figures during epidemics and pandemics. Methods: The data were obtained from accurate databases including Ministry of Health and family welfare (MoHFW) and World Health Organization (WHO). A comparison of CFR and RR between states with total cases ≥ 100 was made as of14th of April, 2020.Results: India’s CFR was reported to be 3.26% as of April 14, 2020 and it seem to be less in comparison to some European and Asian countries. Interstate CFR comparison reveals that the Madhya Pradesh’s CFR was the highest of all the states (7.11) compared with India’s CFR and Kerala’s RR was highest (52.2%) compared with the India’s RR (10.99%). Conclusion: In India especially in states with the high CFR’s, strategies must be employed to ensure that high-risk groups, such as old age, children and people underlying diseases such as diabetes and cancer, receive adequate protection from COVID-19. In addition, case studies with detailed and accurate medical history, and scoring CFR alongside RR, should be adopted in hospitals which may be helpful in exactly pointing the hotspots of infection. These, strategies may help in early detection of COVID-19 followed by access to medical care, which enhances the chances of recovery rates from COVID -19. Key words: COVID-19, CFR, RR, SARS-CoV-2, Pandemic, India, States
In the 21st century, human civilization, has witnessed three major epidemics caused by Coronaviruses namely severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS‑CoV) in 2003, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS‑CoV) in 2012 and 2019‑novel coronavirus (2019‑nCoV) or coronavirus disease (COVID‑19) in 2019. Among these, COVID-19 has greater transmission and mortality rate. 2019‑nCoV belongs to a large family of positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses (+ssRNA) that can be isolated in different animal species. The most communal symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, cough, and shortness of breath during the incubation period (2-14 days) of infection. COVID-19 transmission is occurring from infected humans to close contact with one another through respiratory droplets, coughs, and sneezes of infected person. Moreover, the virus containing surfaces may also transmit the infection. Diagnosis is being carried out by collecting a nasopharyngeal swab or sputum specimen for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Rapid diagnosing methods are also under development which can diagnose COVID 19 in few minutes to hours. Currently, there is no specific cure or preventive therapeutics available. Hence, based upon limited in-vitro and anecdotal data, Chloroquine, or Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Lopinavir and Ritonavir are being employed in the management. Search for new specific anti-viral drugs from natural/synthetic origins is under full swing and many of them are currently used as chemotherapeutic drugs under clinical investigation. Yet, there is a strong need for development of vaccine, which may take several months to few years for the development.